Viruses gain entry into host cells via several sites such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. Once an infection has occurred, the virus may replicate in host cells at the site of infection or they may also spread to other locations. Animal viruses typically spread throughout the body mainly by way of the bloodstream, but can also be spread via the nervous system. Viruses have several methods to counter host immune system responses. Some viruses, like HIV, destroy immune system cells. Other viruses, such as influenza viruses, experience changes in their genes leading to antigenic drift or antigenic shift. In antigenic drift, viral genes mutate altering virus surface proteins. This results in the development of a new virus strain that may not be recognized by host antibodies. Antibodies connect to specific virus antigens to identify them as 'invaders' that must be destroyed. While antigenic drift happens gradually over time, antigenetic shift occurs rapidly. In antigenetic shift, a new virus subtype is produced through the combination of genes from different viral strains. Antigenetic shifts are associated with pandemics as host populations have no immunity to the new viral strain. Journals are the means of disseminating research findings. They help the common man to explore the discovery made by scholars. Journals play a very important role in maintaining periodical record of events and help us in collecting information and thus streamlining our knowledge. Generally, journals refer to collection of Scholarly articles that are published regularly and are peer reviewed. As its peer reviewed it enhances the collaborative efforts from scholars. Internationally published journals accelerate scientific research by increasing quality, competency and credibility. They increase the performance of each and every scholar there by contributing a lot to scientific community.
Last date updated on July, 2014