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The Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals (JAA) paves the way to discovery and development of antiviral drugs, compounds, and clinical methods to prevent viral infections. Importantly, JAA provides the opportunity to inform researchers, clinicians, and others working in the field of antiviral drugs and therapies.
JAA is an internationally recognized journal for scientists involved in basic, applied, and clinical aspects of antiviral and antiretroviral research. It is known that many viruses emerge and re-emerge threatening both animal and human populations. Zoonotic viruses can cause extensive morbidity and mortality; however, preventive vaccines that provide protection are available for only a limited number of viruses.
The primary current therapeutic approach against viral diseases is to target viral components that are essential for replication. There are a number of disadvantages targeting viral components including the limited number of druggable viral targets because viruses have a small genome, as well as the rapid development of drug resistance. New drug therapies combine antivirals to increase efficacy and to avoid the development of drug resistant strains. These strategies are effective for viruses such as HIV, but clearly there is a need to expand our drug arsenal to address the wide diversity of viruses. This pathway relies on alternative strategies for drug discovery, such as examining the virus-host interface.
High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a platform-enabling technology that allows for rapid searching and validation of biologically relevant target genes in the host. RNAi can be used to silence each and every gene in a host to ask what genes are needed for virus replication. Perhaps the greatest challenge is identify and validate the host genes and pathways they intersect among all the interactions relevant to virus replication. Here, antiviral drugs targeting host genes/factors can be discovered that markedly expand the number of druggable targets that can be temporarily silenced to prevent virus replication. This genome-wide exploration of virus-host interactions allows for a paradigm change in drug discovery because it provides critical host gene/pathway information allowing for drug rescue and repurposing. This systems-based approach to antiviral drug discovery integrates multiple ‘-omics’ approaches because much is learned about host genes co-opted by the virus for metabolomics, and proteins usurped for viral protein trafficking and viral packaging (proteomics), and the like. This information helps to find drugs lacking undesired side effects, and uses a rational approach in drug screening.
Antivirals are a class of drugs which are used to treat viral infections. Currently available antiviral drugs target only main group of viruses that are: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. Most diseases caused by viruses tend to end without treatment and do not require antiviral therapy. The common antiviral drugs include: Acyclovir, Brivudine, Docosanol, Famciclovir, Idoxuridine, Penciclovir, Trifluridine, Valacyclovir, etc.
Related Journals of Antivirals
Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Advances in Influenza Research, Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, Antiviral Research, Viral Immunology, Viral Hepatit Dergisi, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Viral Proteases, Virology and mycology, Topics in antiviral medicine, Archives of Virology, AIDS journal
Antiretroviral drugs are the drugs that are used to fight retrovirus infections which mainly include HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act on different stages of the HIV life cycle. A retrovirus is a single-stranded RNA virus with a DNA intermediate. Common antiretroviral drugs include: Lamivudine, Abacavir, Zidovudine, Stavudine, Didanosine, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, etc.
Related Journals of Antiretrovirals
Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Advances in Influenza Research, Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals, Antiretroviral Therapy Journal, Viral Immunology, Virology & Antiviral Research, Viral Hepatit Dergisi, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Viral Proteases, Virology and mycology, Topics in antiviral medicine, Antiretroviral Treatment Journals
Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a retrovirus that causes AIDS. It comes under a subgroup lentivirus. HIV infests helper T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells and ultimately decreses the CD4+ T cell count. As the infection of HIV proceeds, it compromises, more and more, the immune system. HIV can be transmitted in many ways, such as vaginal, oral sex, anal sex, blood transfusion, and contaminated hypodermic needles.
Related Journals of HIV
HIV & Retro Virus, Journal of AIDS and HIV Research, Risk Behaviours of HIV/AIDS Journals, The Lancet HIV, Online First, Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services, HIV/AIDS Journals, Current HIV Research, Current HIV/AIDS Reports, Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, Journal of AIDS and HIV research, HIV clinical trials journal
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by the infection of HIV. It is indicated when CD4+ T cell count is below 200 cells per µL. Till now there is no cure for the HIV. As the infection proceeds, individual becomes more and more weak and ultimately dies. Opportunistic infections are the main cause of the death in HIV infection.
Related Journals of AIDS
HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, Advances in Influenza Research,Journal on HIV , HIV & AIDS Review, HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care, Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research, Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, Open AIDS Journal, African Journal of AIDS Research, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, AIDS Reviews, AIDS Research and Therapy, International HIV journal, Journal of AIDS
Immunity that is developed against virus infections is known as viral immunity. It is developed by a variety of specific and non-specific mechanisms. An immune response against virus appears first during the primary infection of a susceptible, non-immune host/ individual and increases during reinfection of the same host. Interferons are the main protein responsible for viral immunity.
Related Journals of Viral Immunity
Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Advances in Influenza Research, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Viral Immunology, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, Viral Immunity, Viral Immunology, Topics in antiviral medicine
Vaccines that are developed from viruses are viral vaccines. Viral vaccines contain either inactivated viruses or attenuated viruses. One of the most common examples of viral vaccine is MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) vaccine. Inactivated or killed viral vaccines contain viruses, which have lost their ability to replicate and in turn cause disease.
Related Journals of Viral Vaccine
Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Advances in Influenza Research, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Viral Immunology, Expert Review of Vaccines, Viral Immunology, Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutic, Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination, Open Vaccine Journal
Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect and replicates within a bacterium. Bacteriophages firstly attach to the bacterium and then insert its genetic material inside the bacterium. After insertion, the genetic material of the virus particle gets attached to the genetic material of the bacteria and causes protein synthesis that lead to generation of many virus particles inside the bacterium.
Related Journals of Bacteriophages
Bacteriophage, Viral Immunology, Virology & Antiviral Research, Viral Proteases, clinical & microbiology Journal, International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents
Also known as swine flu. It is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by the type A influenza virus. H1N1 spreads through coughing or sneezing. It can also spread by touching something that someone with H1N1 flu touched and then putting hands to our mouth or nose. The main symptoms of swine flu include fever, tiredness, lack of appetite, coughing and a sore throat.
Related Journals of H1N1
HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, Advances in Influenza Research, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Viral Immunology, Virology & Antiviral Research, Viral Immunology, Virology & Antiviral Research, Topics in antiviral medicine
They are a group of proteins that are made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria or parasites). They act as antiviral agents and modulate functions of the immune system. Interferons are of many types: IF α, IF β and IF γ. These interferons have been classified into two types: type I includes the alpha and beta forms, and type II consists of the gamma form. Type I interferons can be produced by almost any cell upon stimulation by a virus; their primary function is to induce viral resistance in cells. Type II interferon is secreted only by natural killer cells and T lymphocytes; its main purpose is to signal the immune system to respond to infectious agents or cancerous growth.
Related Journals of Interferons
Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Advances in Influenza Research, Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, Interferons, Viral Immunology, Viral Immunology, Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination,Virology & Antiviral Research, Viral Immunology
Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to greatly suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. These drugs do not kill or cure the virus but, prevent the growth of the virus. The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level. This stops any weakening of the immune system and allows it to recover from any damage that HIV might have caused.
Related Journals of Antiretroviral Therapy
Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Advances in Influenza Research, HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, Advances in Influenza Research, Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals, Antiretroviral Therapy, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy,Virology & Antiviral Research, Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy, Molecular Therapy, AIDS and behavior journal
Viral vectors are the commonly used tool used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells. Delivery of genes by a virus is termed as transduction and the infected cells are described as transduced. Viral Vectors are widely used in gene therapy. Viruses can usually infect more than one type of cell. Thus, when viral vectors are used to carry genes into the body, they might infect healthy cells as well as cancer cells.
Related Journals of Viral Vectors
Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Advances in Influenza Research, Parasites and Vectors, Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, Journal of Vector Ecology, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Journal of Hepatitis Research
Cross infection is the transfer of harmful microorganisms from one person to other. The spread of infections can occur between people, pieces of equipment, or within the body. Aseptic technique is a common process used to properly sterilize equipment and thus preventing the cross infection. The most common are nosocomial cross infections, which are acquired at a hospital or other healthcare facilities such as outpatient clinics.
Related Journals of Cross Infection Control
HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, Advances in Influenza Research, American Journal of Infection Control, Hospital Infection Control, Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Infectious Agents and Cancer, Infectious Disease Reports, Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice
Combination therapy is a wide term for the use of multiple medications/therapies, to fight the complex infections. Some common conditions treated with combination therapy include tuberculosis, leprosy, cancer, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Combination therapy helps in preventing drug resistance. For some cancers, the best approach is a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery or radiation therapy treats cancer that is confined locally, while chemotherapy also kills the cancer cells that have spread to distant sites.
Related Journals of Combination Therapy
Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Advances in Influenza Research, AIDS Research and Therapy, Alzheimer's Research and Therapy, Annals of Cancer Research and Therapy, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Clinical virology is a branch of medicine which deals with isolating and characterizing several viruses that are responsible for human diseases. It mainly deals with cell cultures, serological, biochemical and molecular studies. This field is very useful in knowing the epidemiology and spreading of viral diseases. By knowing the modes of transmission, effective treatment strategies can be invented/discovered.
Related Journals of Clinical Virology
Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Advances in Influenza Research, Journal of Clinical Virology, Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology, Medical virology, Advances in Tumor Virology, Journal of Medical Virology
It is defined as study or retrovirus. Retrovirus is a virus that is composed not of DNA but of RNA. Retroviruses have an enzyme, known as reverse transcriptase, which gives them the unique property of transcribing their RNA into DNA after entering a cell. The retroviral DNA can then integrate into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell and get expressed there.
Related Journals of Retrovirology
Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Advances in Influenza Research, Retrovirology, Journal of General Virology, Archives of Virology, Advances in Virology, Romanian journal of virology, Journal of Medical Virology, Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Viruses quickly adapt to and exploit the varying conditions because they have polymerase enzyme that helps in viral replication. Emerging viral disease is a major threat to global health. Due to rapid mutation and adaptation to changing environment several new viral diseases and emerging and causing human illness.
Related Journals of Emerging Viral Diseases
HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Journal of Human Papillomavirus, Advances in Influenza Research, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
It is a class of antiviral drug that are used in the treatment of various viral diseases. Protease inhibitors bind to viral protease (a type of viral protein) and prevent proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles. Some of the common examples of these agents are: Simeprevir, Boceprevir, Telaprevir, Ritonavir, Fosamprenavir, Nelfinavir, etc.
Related Journals of Protease Inhibitors
Journal of Human Papillomavirus, HIV & Retro Virus, Virology & Antiviral Research, Advances in Influenza Research, Viral Proteases, Proteins: Structure, Function and Genetics, Protein and Cell, Protein Expression and Purification, Archives of Virology, Advances in Virology, Romanian journal of virology, Journal of Medical Virology
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*2016 Journal Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2014 and 2015 with the number of times they are cited in 2016 based on Google search and the Scholar Citation Index database. If 'X' is the total number of articles published in 2014 and 2015, and 'Y' is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2016 then, impact factor = Y/X