alexa Arenavirus infection | Argentina| PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Arenavirus Infection

  • Arenavirus infection


    Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically acquired disease in humans through rodent excreta, especially urine. The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which taxonomic status remains pending. In 1934, the prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus, was first isolated during serial monkey passage of human material that was obtained from a fatal infection in the first documented epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis, a totally unrelated virus.

  • Arenavirus infection

    Diseases: • LCM viruses cause influenza -like febrile illness,but occasionally they may cause meningitis,characteristically accompanied by large numbers of lymphocytes in the CSF (as the name LCM suggests). • Lassa fever virus causes Lassa fever. Lassa fever is endemic in west Africa.The virus was first isolated from Americans stationed in the village of Lassa, Nigeria.The virus can be transmitted person-to -person. • other Arenaviruses like Junin virus, Machupo virus cause haemorrhagic fevers.

  • Arenavirus infection

     Pathogenesis: Little data are available regarding the pathogenesis of fatal LCM infection, but marked neuronal infection is seen in human encephalitis. In the case of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers, pathogenesis likely results from direct viral infection of endothelial cells resulting in vascular dysfunction and shock. Immunopathologic events seem less likely, although as seen in most viral infections, high levels of circulating endogenous interferon-alpha and pro-inflammatory cytokines are present that may prove detrimental rather than beneficial in arenavirus infections.

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