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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).
A total of 27 subjects (13m, 14f), 9%, had positive scores consistent with ADHD. These children had an oppositional behavior rate of 33.3% and a grade retention rate of 30.7%. Those who did not have positive scores for ADHD had a rate of 5.5% and 7.3%, respectively. The mean scores for the boys on the ADHD rating scale was 17.1 (SD = 8.6); the girls had a mean of 14.7 (SD = 7.3).
Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD probably results from a combination of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at possible environmental factors, and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might contribute to ADHD. Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD.