Definition: Chapare hemorrhagic fever (CHHF) is caused by Chapare virus, a single-strand RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family. Chapare virus is certainly zoonotic, or animal-borne. The limited clinical information about CHHF comes from a small, poorly described cluster of hemorrhagic fever cases in rural Bolivia. A single fatal case yielded the only clinical description and blood specimen to date.
Symptoms and Treatment : A patient must visit a doctor once the mentioned symptoms are becoming regular, although most of the times they are ignored or many a times diagnosed as something else too. Blood, platelet, and plasma replacement may be useful for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). High-dose corticosteroids, immune globulin intravenous, and fresh frozen plasma have also been reported to be successful in CCHF.Infusion of convalescent plasma during the first 8 days of illness with Argentine HF reduces the mortality rate from 15-30% to less that 1%. The symptoms of CHHF, as reported in the only described patient, resemble those of other South American hemorrhagic fevers, such as Argentine HF or Bolivian HF. The incubation period is unknown, but for Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is 6 to 16 days. The CHHF clinical course included: Fever, headache, articulation and muscle pain, vomiting. These symptoms were followed by deterioration with multiple hemorrhagic signs. The only described CHHF patient died 14 days after onset of symptoms.
Statistics: Disease statistics in Argentina has given result as that in December 2003 and January 2004, a small number of HF cases were reported in rural Bolivia in an area outside the known Machupo HF endemic zone, and sera from one fatal case was available for laboratory testing. The man had symptoms similar to those seen with other arenaviral HF cases—acute febrile illness beginning with headache, joint and muscle pain, and vomiting—and rapidly progressed to shock, bleeding, and death at 14 days post onset of illness. Virus was isolated from two of the patient's serum samples and identified as an arenavirus by reaction of virus infected cells with arenavirus-specific antibodies and by genetic detection techniques (PCR).