Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are not specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative with CKD. This disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia, pericarditis or renal osteodystrophy.
In more advanced stages, treatments may be required for anemia and kidney bone disease [also called renal osteodystrophy, secondary hyperparathyroidism or chronic kidney disease - mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD)]. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) are used, as they have been found to slow the progression of CKD to kidney failure.
Major research on disease:
The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) cohort study is a prospective observational study of pediatric patients with CKD and mild to moderate renal dysfunction and recent literature suggests that BP targets in diabetic and non-diabetic CKD may need to be individualized based on the presence of proteinuria. Some trials have failed to show a reduction in cardiovascular or renal outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with CKD when a BP target of <130/80 mmHg is achieved compared to lowering BP to <140/90 mmHg