Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.The two main types are acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME). AOM is an infection of abrupt onset that usually presents with ear pain. In young children this may result in pulling at the ear, increased crying, and poor sleep. Decreased eating and a fever may also be present. OME is typically not associated with symptoms The infection in the middle ear (the space behind the eardrum where tiny bones pick up vibrations and pass them along to the inner ear) very often accompanies a common cold, the flu, or other types of respiratory infections. treatment: A warm compress. Placing a warm, moist washcloth over the affected ear may lessen pain. Pain medication. Your doctor may advise the use of over-the-counter acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Motrin IB, Advil, others) to relieve pain. Use the drugs as directed on the label Eardrops. Prescription eardrops, such as antipyrine-benzocaine-glycerin (Aurodex), may provide additional pain relief for those whose ear drums are intact (not torn or perforated). Ear tubes: If your child has recurrent otitis media — three episodes in six months or four episodes in a year with at least one occurring in the past six months — or otitis media with effusion — persistent fluid buildup in the ear after an infection has cleared up or in the absence of any infection — your doctor may recommend a procedure to drain fluid from the middle ear treatment for chronic suppurative otitis media: Chronic infection that results in perforation of the eardrum — chronic suppurative otitis media — is difficult to treat.
Pathophysiology : Viral and bacterial infection The infection is usually of viral origin, but allergic and other inflammatory conditions involving the Eustachian tube may create a similar outcome. Inflammation in the nasopharynx extends to the medial end of the eustachian tube, creating stasis and inflammation, which, in turn, alter the pressure within the middle ear. These changes may be either negative (most common) or positive, relative to ambient pressure.Stasis also permits pathogenic bacteria to colonize the normally sterile middle ear space through direct extension from the nasopharynx by reflux, aspiration, or active insufflation. The response is the establishment of an acute inflammatory reaction characterized by typical vasodilatation, exudation, leukocyte invasion, phagocytosis, and local immunologic responses within the middle ear cleft, which yields the clinical pattern of AOM.
Immunologic factors Immunologic activity may play a significant role in the frequency of AOM and its outcome Although most research has focused on the immunologic aspects of OME, certain relations between AOM and the patient’s immune status have been demonstrated, as follows: Production of antibodies may promote clearance of a middle ear effusion after an acute attack Previous exposure or immunization may have a preventative role by suppressing colonization of the nasopharynx by pathogens The formation of antibodies during an attack may prevent or modify future attacks; unfortunately, antibodies to both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are of the polysaccharide type and the ability to product them develops late unless conjugated to proteins Minor or transient immunologic defects may give rise to recurrent otitis media research :Nasal Balloon Can Treat Youngsters for 'Glue Ear' Unapproved Prescription Ear Drop (Otic) Products: Not FDA Evaluated for Safety, Effectiveness and Quality