n medicine (gastroenterology), esophageal varices are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower third of the esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly due to cirrhosis; patients with esophageal varices have a strong tendency to develop bleeding. Treatment : In emergency situations, care is directed at stopping blood loss, maintaining plasma volume, correcting disorders in coagulation induced by cirrhosis, and appropriate use of antibiotics (usually a quinolone or ceftriaxone, as infection by Gram-negative strains is either concomitant or a precipitant). Blood volume resuscitation should be done promptly and with caution. The goal should be hemodynamic stability and hemoglobin of over 8 g/dl. Resuscitation of all lost blood leads to increase in portal pressure leading to more bleeding.