Pathophysiology : With aging, the vitreous humor can contract and separate from the retina. The age at which this change occurs varies but most often is between 50 and 75 yr. During this separation, the vitreous can intermittently tug on the retina. The mechanical traction stimulates the retina, which sends a signal that is perceived by the brain and interpreted as light. Complete separation of the vitreous leads to an increase in floaters, which may last for years. However, traction on the retina may create a hole (retinal tear), and if fluid leaks behind the tear, the retina may detach. Retinal detachment may also be caused by other factors (eg, trauma, primary retinal disorders). Lightning-like flashes, common in retinal detachment, are called photopsias. Photopsias can also occur when rubbing the eyes or when looking around after awakening. Introduction : Floaters are deposits of various size, shape, consistency, refractive index, and motility within the eye's vitreous humour, which is normally transparent.
At a young age, the vitreous is transparent, but as one ages, imperfections gradually develop. Treatment : Benign eye floaters almost never require medical treatment. If they are bothersome, you can move them away from your field of vision by moving your eyes. This maneuver shifts the fluid in your eyes. Looking up and down is usually more effective than looking from side to side. If eye floaters are so dense and numerous that they affect your vision, your eye doctor may consider a surgical procedure called a vitrectomy. During this procedure, the vitreous and its floating debris are removed and replaced with a salt solution. Vitrectomy may have complications, such as: Retinal detachment,Retinal tears ,Cataracts. The risks of such complications is small but if they occur vision can be permanently damaged. For this reason most surgeons will not perform vitrectomy unless eye floaters are causing an extraordinary visual handicap.
Symptoms: Symptoms of eye floaters may include: •Spots in vision that appear as dark specks or knobby, transparent strings of floating material •Spots that move when you move eyes, so when you try to look at them, they move quickly out of visual field •Spots that are most noticeable when you look at a plain bright background, such as a blue sky or a white wall •Spots that eventually settle down and drift out of the line of vision.
Treatment: Treatments for floaters that impair vision If eye floaters impair vision, which happens rarely, you and eye doctor may consider treatment. Options may include: Using a laser to disrupt the floaters. An ophthalmologist aims a special laser at the floaters in the vitreous, which may break them up and make them less noticeable. Some people who have this treatment report improved vision; others notice little or no difference. Risks of laser therapy include damage to retina if the laser is aimed incorrectly. Laser surgery to treat floaters is used infrequently. Using surgery to remove the vitreous. An ophthalmologist removes the vitreous through a small incision and replaces it with a solution to help eye maintain its shape. Surgery may not remove all the floaters, and new floaters can develop after surgery. Risks of vitrectomy include bleeding and retinal tears.