Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine is a conjugate vaccine for the prevention of infectious disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. The Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) vaccine have reduced childhood meningitis. A Hib bacterium is a Gram-negative, coccobacillar, facultative anaerobic pathogenic bacterium.
Hib causes bacteremia, pneumonia, epiglottitis and acute bacterial meningitis. It causes cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and infectious arthritis. It causes epiglottitis, Pneumonia- Fever, Cough, Chills, Sweating, Chest pain, Bacteremia- Diarrhea, and Vomiting and Meningitis. Treatment of Hib infection includes Cortisone and antibiotics like Cefotaxime, Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones.
Hib meningitis causes death in 5 to 10% of children who are infected. 20,000 cases occurred annually in the United States mostly in children. It is more in Alaska. After routine use of the Hib vaccine in the U.S. from 1980 to 1990, the incidence of invasive Hib disease has decreased from 40–100 per 100,000 children down to less than 1 per 100,000.