Pathophysiology: Leptospirosis is a type of bacterial infection spread by animals. It's caused by a strain of bacteria called leptospira. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. The early stages of the disease may include high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, chills, redness in the eyes, abdominal pain, jaundice, haemorrhages in skin and mucous membranes (including pulmonary bleeding), vomiting, diarrhoea and a rash. Leptospiral infection in humans causes a range of symptoms, and some infected persons may have no symptoms at all.
Treatment: Effective antibiotics include penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and Doxycycline. In more severe cases cefotaxime or ceftriaxone should be preferred.Glucose and salt solution infusions may be administered; dialysis is used in serious cases. Elevations of serum potassium are common and if the potassium level gets too high special measures must be taken. Serum phosphorus levels may likewise increase to unacceptable levels due to renal failure.
Statistics: There is scarce data on the burden of leptospirosis and its epidemiological characteristics in Argentina. This study aimed to evaluate distribution of leptospirosis cases and identify risk factors for the disease during national laboratory-based surveillance. From January 1999 to December 2005, 812 suspected cases were referred to the national reference laboratory, of which 182 and 463 had respectively, laboratory confirmed and unconfirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was discarded in 167 cases.