Long QT syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by a prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiograms and a propensity to ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which may lead to syncope, cardiac arrest, or sudden death.
symptoms include Long QT syndrome is usually diagnosed after a person has a cardiac event (eg, syncope, cardiac arrest). In some situations, this condition is diagnosed after a family member suddenly dies. In some individuals, the diagnosis is made when an electrocardiogram shows QT prolongation.
Treatment :All patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) should avoid drugs that prolong the QT interval or that reduce their serum potassium or magnesium level. Potassium and magnesium deficiency should be corrected. Although treating asymptomatic patients is somewhat controversial, a safe approach is to treat all patients with congenital LQTS because sudden cardiac death can be the first manifestation of LQTS. Beta-blockers are drugs of choice for patients with LQTS.
The first member of a family to be identified with LQTS, the proband, was usually brought to medical attention because of a syncopal episode during childhood or teenage years. Probands (n = 328) were younger at first contact (age 21 +/- 15 years), more likely to be female (69%), and had a higher frequency of preenrollment syncope or cardiac arrest with resuscitation (80%), congenital deafness (7%), a resting heart rate less than 60 beats/min (31%), QTc greater than or equal to 0.50 sec1/2 (52%), and a history of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (47%) than other affected (n = 688) and unaffected (n = 1,004) family members.
We included 114 patients in the study. The mean age was 49±17 years. Brain neoplasm was the surgical indication in 90% of the patients. The mean QTc was 470±42 ms. Prolonged QTc was found in 71% patients. The heart rate-corrected QT interval was between 450 ms and 500 ms in 52% and >500 ms in 19% of the patients. The heart rate and concentration of serum glucose were higher in the prolonged QTc group. Only 7•5% of all patients had hypokalemia (≤3 mEq/l). In the prolonged QTc group 9•2% had hypokalemia compared to 3•2% in normal QTc patients (P = 0•406).