Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling. Nephrotic syndrome is caused by different disorders that damage the kidneys. This damage leads to the release of too much protein in the urine. Twenty-six children presenting with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and a histological diagnosis of focal glomerulosclerosis were studied retrospectively to evaluate their response to treatment, outcome and clinicopathological correlations.
Twenty-two patients (84.6%) were steroid resistant; of these, 8 of the 19 with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and 2 of the 3 with focal global within 16 weeks of starting therapy. Seven patients relapsed after a CY-induced remission, but 5 of them became steroid responsive. After an average follow-up of 83 months, 17 patients are in remission with normal renal function, 3 patients have persistent nephrotic range proteinuria and 6 patients are in chronic renal failure. Swelling (edema) is the most common symptom. It may occur: In the face and around the eyes (facial swelling) In the arms and legs, especially in the feet and ankles In the belly area (swollen abdomen).