Pulmonary valve stenosis is a condition characterized by obstruction to blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. This obstruction is caused by narrowing (stenosis) at one or more points from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The most common form of pulmonary stenosis is obstruction at the valve itself, referred to as pulmonary valvar stenosis.
Patients with mild pulmonary valve stenosis are healthy, can participate in all types of physical activities and sporting events, and lead normal lives. The type of treatment required depends on the type of valve abnormality present. Most commonly, the pulmonary valve is of normal size, and the obstruction is due to fusion along the commissures or lines of valve leaflet opening. This "typical" form of pulmonary valve stenosis responds very nicely to balloon dilation. Balloon dilation valvuloplasty is performed at the time of cardiac catheterization and does not require open-heart surgery.
Statistical analysis on pulmonary valve stenosis in Argentina resulted as of 547 infants, 103 (18.8%) experienced 116 episodes of LRTIs (incidence=0.84 LRTIs/100 child-weeks). Most (81%) episodes were bronchiolitis. Forty-nine (9.0%) infants were hospitalized at least once with an LRTI. There were 53 hospitalizations (45.7%) for 116 LRTI episodes. None of these infants were breastfed. The odds of LRTI in infants whose mothers had CD4%<14 were 4.4 times than that of those whose mothers had CD4%≥29 (p=0.003). The odds of LRTI were 16.0 times that of infants with a CD4+ count [cells/mm3] < 750 at birth compared to those with CD4+≥750 (p=0.002). Maternal CD4+ decline and Infant hemoglobin at the 6-12 week visit were associated with infant LRTIs after 6-12 weeks and before six months of age.