Tourette Syndrome is a neurological condition, characterised by a combination of involuntary noises (grunting, coughing or shouting) and movements (jerking of the head or jumping) called tics. It usually starts during childhood and continues into adulthood. In many cases Tourette's syndrome runs in families and it is commonly associated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The diagnosis is made by observing the symptoms and by evaluating the history of their onset. It is more frequently observed in males than in females. The exact cause of Tourette’s is unknown.
The treatment of TS focuses on identifying and helping the individual manage the symptoms. Most cases of TS are mild, and do not require pharmacological treatment. Psychobehavioral therapy, patient education may be sufficient. Severe and frequent tics are treated with drugs like alpha-2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine), muscle relaxants (baclofen, clonazepam) and dopamine antagonists. Cognitive behavioral therapy and Relaxation techniques may be helpful in adult patients. Research is being done to know the genetic factors involved in Tourette Syndrome and to develop medications with less side effects.