Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare, life-threatening complication of certain types of bacterial infections. Often toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus bacteria. It can affect men, children and postmenopausal women. Risk factors for toxic shock syndrome include skin wounds and surgery. Symptoms include sudden high fever, hypotension, headaches, vomiting or diarrhea and rash resembling sunburn on palms and soles. It usually affects muliple organ systems. TSS is a very rare a disease across Argentina. Most of the cases go unreported. Across the world studies indicate 1-2 people in every 100,000 is affected.
Toxic shock syndrome is a medical emergency. Antibiotic treatment should cover both S. pyogenes and S. aureus. This may include combinations of cephalosporins, penicillins or vancomycin. Supportive care like fluid management, ventilation, renal replacement therapy is essential. Research has indicated that use of super absorbent tampons increases the risk of TSS. Hence menstruating women are advised to change the tampons regularly.