Typhoid Fever is a gastro-intestinal infection caused by the organism named Salmonella enterica typhi bacteria. It is transmitted from person to person i.e., humans being the only reservoir via the fecal-oral route where an infected or asymptomatic individual (does not exhibit symptoms) with poor hand or body hygiene passes the infection to another person when handling food and water. The bacteria multiply in the intestinal tract and can spread to the bloodstream. Typhoid Fever is a bacterial disease spread through contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage, victims exhibit sustained high fevers. if left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20% in Argentina.
There are two types of vaccines available; the inactivated injectable vaccine (lasting 2-3 years) and the live attenuated oral vaccine (lasting 5-7 years). There is no vaccine available against Paratyphoid Fever. Researches are focusing on Safety and Immunogenicity of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Commonly Administered Vaccines after Co-administration, Molecular subtyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Colombia and Argentina.