Figure 2: Survey of analytical methods which are typically used to characterize GAGs. Please note that not all the indicated methods are applicable to the poly- and larger oligosaccharides. However, the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides into defined oligosaccharides is very difficult if chemically modified (in particular, oversulfated) GAGs are of interest. “Chemometry” indicates methods which allow the determination of a dedicated chemical parameter, for instance, the number of reducing endgroups. Abbreviations: ESI, electrospray ionization; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; IR, infrared; MALDI, matrix-assisted laser and ionization; MS, mass spectrometry; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; SEC, size exclusion chromatography; TLC, thin-layer chromatography.