Function

Gene Title

Public ID

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change

 

     

Palmitate

Palmitate + pioglitazone

Palmitate + exenatide

Regulation of gene expression, epigenetic

Thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 1 (THRAP1)

BC024236

11.2

 

 

 

Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 (PIK3C3)

BC010388

9.1

 

 

 

Cardiac-MyBP-C associated Ca/CaM kinase (MLCK)

BC039103

7.1

 

 

 

Acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA)

BC007115

5.2

 

 

 

GLI-Kruppel family member GLI3 (Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome) (GLI3)

BC032660

5.6

 

 

 

Deoxynucleotidyltransferase, terminal (DNTT)

AA585152

5.4

 

 

 

RAD51 homolog (RAD51)

AL833420

4.7

 

 

 

Pleckstrin homology, Sec7 and coiled-coil domains 1(cytohesin 1)( PSCD1)

CA442689

3.4

 

 

 

Sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1)

S66168

3.3

 

 

 

Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF)

AB082529

3.2

 

 

 

Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR)

BC038371

3.0

 

 

 

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, 36kDa (IGFBP2)

NM_000597

2.9

 

 

 

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 3 (GRM3)

AI733361

2.8

 

 

 

Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3)

AW149846

2.5

 

 

 

Pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (PBX1)

AL832146

2.4

 

 

 

Transforming growth factor, beta receptor II (TGFBR2)

AI809493

2.4

 

 

 

CAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1)

AW945589

2.2

 

 

 

Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 2 (NR1H2)

NM_007121

1.8

 

 

 

Arginase (ARG1)

AV649309

1.7

 

 

 

Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10)

NM_004465

1.7

 

 

 

Nodal homolog (NODAL)

AI670948

1.7

 

 

 

X (inactive)-specific transcript (XIST)

BE644917

1.6

 

 

 

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)

AL137290

1.6

 

 

 

Sp3 transcription factor (SP3)

AW470841

1.5

 

 

 

Ribosomal protein L28 (RPL28)

NM_000991

 

21.2

5.6

 

Chromatin modifying protein 5 (CHMP5)

NM_015961

 

18.4

15.6

 

Hypothetical protein LOC285463 (CTBP1)

BF984434

 

14.0

14.9

 

Glutathione S-transferase A1(GSTA1)

NM_000846

 

11.7

4.9

 

Protease, serine, 3 (PRSS3)

NM_002771

 

9.4

3.2

 

Aldolase B, fructose-bisphosphate (ALDOB)

BC005314

 

8.0

8.0

 

ISL1 transcription factor, LIM/homeodomain, (islet-1)( ISL1)

NM_002202

 

7.3

8.6

 

Trypsinogen C (TRY6)

U66061

 

7.3

 

 

Calreticulin (CALR)

AA910371

 

7.2

9.8

 

Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (autotaxin)( ENPP2)

L35594

 

7.2

3.2

 

Cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 5 (CYP3A5)

X90579

 

7.1

1.9

 

Cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer, 61 (CYR61)

NM_001554

 

7.0

6.6

 

Protease, serine, 2 (trypsin 2)( PRSS2)

NM_002770

 

6.9

3.3

 

Fibrinogen beta chain (FGB)

NM_005141

 

6.9

4.3

 

Human T-cell leukemia virus enhancer factor (HTLF)

BF590117

 

5.7

6.4

 

Regulator of G-protein signalling 4 (RGS4)

AL514445

 

5.3

4.4

 

Pancreatic polypeptide (PPY)

M15788

 

5.2

 

 

CD53 antigen (CD53)

NM_000560

 

4.8

3.6

 

Leukocyte-derived arginine aminopeptidase (LRAP)

BE889628

 

4.7

4.3

 

Colipase, pancreatic (CLPS)

NM_001832

 

4.6

1.9

 

Potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 2 (KCNMB2)

AF209747

 

4.6

4.7

 

Regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (REG3A)

NM_002580

 

4.2

2.0

 

Phospholipase C, epsilon 1 (PLCE1)

NM_016341

 

4.0

1.8

 

Transcription factor 4 (TCF4)

BF592782

 

3.9

5.3

 

cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1)

M34356

 

3.7

2.5

 

Transforming growth factor, beta 2 (TGFB2)

BF061658

 

3.4

3.7

 

lymphoid-restricted membrane protein (LRMP)

NM_006152

 

3.3

2.3

 

Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6 (CYP2A6)

M33318

 

3.3

3.2

 

Bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS3)

Z97632

 

3.2

2.3

 

Cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4 (CYP3A4)

AF182273

 

3.2

1.8

 

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 1 (EIF2AK1)

NM_014413

 

3.1

2.0

 

Glutathione peroxidase 2 (gastrointestinal)(GPX2)

NM_002083

 

3.3

3.3

 

Ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1(FTH1)

AA083483

 

3.1

3.7

 

Meningioma expressed antigen 5 (hyaluronidase)( MGEA5)

AK002091

 

3.0

1.7

 

ADAM metallopeptidase domain 28 (ADAM28)

NM_021778

 

3.0

 

 

Nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1)

D85245

 

2.9

3.5

 

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)

N92507

 

2.8

2.5

 

Peripherin (PRPH)

NM_006262

 

2.8

4.1

 

Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)

NM_007348

 

2.8

1.9

 

GLIS family zinc finger 3 (GLIS3)

AW025602

 

2.7

2.3

 

DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3)

BC003637

 

2.7

 

 

Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit (CACNA1A)

AA769818

 

2.6

2.5

 

Paired box gene 6 ( PAX6)

NM_000280

 

2.6

 

 

Interleukin 7 receptor (IL7R)

NM_002185

 

2.5

2.2

 

Villin 2 (ezrin)( VIL2)

BF663141

 

2.5

2.0

 

Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH)

U06117

 

2.4

3.2

 

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2 (GRM2)

NM_000839

 

2.4

2.4

 

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF)

NM_001945

 

2.3

2.3

 

Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 13b (TNFSF13B)

AW151360

 

2.3

2.5

 

Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha (HLA-DRA)

M60333

 

2.3

 

 

S100 calcium binding protein A8 (calgranulin A)( S100A8)

NM_002964

 

2.2

2.0

 

Major histocompatibility complex, class I, A (HLA-A)

AI923492

 

2.2

2.1

 

Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1(HLA-DRB1)

NM_002125

 

2.1

 

 

Apolipoprotein C-I (APOC1)

W79394

 

2.1

1.9

 

Pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2)

AV703394

 

2.0

2.0

 

Neuropeptide Y (NPY)

NM_000905

 

2.0

2.1

 

Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 12 (ARHGEF12)

AI807672

 

2.0

1.8

 

keratin 20 (KRT20)

AI732381

 

2.0

1.9

 

Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 3 (NFATC3)

U85430

 

2.0

 

 

Fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1)

AA058828

 

1.9

2.3

 

Sp4 transcription factor (SP4)

BF438799

 

1.9

2.1

 

Synaptotagmin I (SYT1)

AV731490

 

1.8

 

 

Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1(HLA-DQB1)

AI583173

 

1.8

 

 

Interleukin 10 receptor, beta (IL10RB)

BC001903

 

1.8

 

 

Phosphofructokinase, muscle (PFKM)

U24183

 

1.7

 

 

Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 3 (RAPGEF3)

U78168

 

1.7

2.3

 

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)

BE878463

 

1.7

 

 

Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 (CCR1)

NM_001295

 

1.6

2.1

 

Carboxypeptidase M (CPM)

AW663908

 

1.6

 

 

FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 3 (FXYD3)

NM_005971

 

3.1

3.6

 

PR domain containing 1, with ZNF domain (PRDM1)

AI692659

 

1.9

3.1

 

Myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3)

NM_000256

 

2.7

2.4

 

Bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS3)

Z97632

 

3.2

2.3

 

Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5)

NM_000698

 

 

2.1

 

Regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (REG3A)

NM_002580

 

4.2

2.0

 

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)

NM_001200

 

 

1.9

 

Cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 5 (CYP3A5)

X90579

 

7.1

1.9

 

Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 4 (HLA-DRB4)

BC005312

 

1.6

1.9

 

Colipase, pancreatic (CLPS)

NM_001832

 

4.6

1.9

 

Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG)

AF130057

 

 

1.6

 

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 3 (WISP3)

AF143679

 

 

1.5

Metabolism

Potassium channel, subfamily K, member 1 (KCNK1)

AL833343

4.3

 

 

 

Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH)

AA609488

3.7

 

 

 

Nephronophthisis 3 (adolescent)(NPHP3)

NM_152530

2.9

 

 

 

Hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 12 (HSD17B12)

BC012536

2.9

 

 

 

NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)

AI826277

2.9

 

 

 

Tyrosinase (TYR)

BC027179

2.9

 

 

 

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit 9 eta (EIF3S9)

AA628539

2.6

 

 

 

Proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 7 (Mov34 homolog)( PSMD7)

AW361702

2.3

 

 

 

Solute carrier family 18, member 2 (SLC18A2)

NM_003054

2.3

 

 

 

Mevalonate kinase (MVK)

AU150926

1.9

 

 

 

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12)

NM_021107

1.9

 

 

 

Transferrin receptor (TFRC)

N76327

1.9

 

 

 

Nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1)

BE299830

1.8

 

 

 

Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 6 (TRPM6)

AK026281

1.8

 

 

 

Sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1 (SORBS1)

AI377221

1.7

 

 

 

Solute carrier family 22, member 5 (SLC22A5)

NM_003060

2.0

1.8

2.0

 

Cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS)

BE613178

1.7

 

 

 

Sucrase-isomaltase (alpha-glucosidase)( SI)

NM_001041

1.6

 

 

 

Secretin (SCT)

NM_021920

1.5

 

 

 

Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)

NM_000818

 

10.7

8.2

 

Glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) (GLRX)

AF162769

 

5.2

2.3

 

Voltage-dependent anion channel 3 (VDAC3)

U90943

 

4.9

2.1

 

Lectin, mannose-binding, 1 (LMAN1)

U09716

 

4.7

4.7

 

Collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2)

NM_000089

 

4.0

3.8

 

NADH dehydrogenase 1 beta subcomplex, 8 (NDUFB8)

NM_005004

 

3.9

 

 

Ferritin, light polypeptide (FTL)

BG538564

 

3.8

 

 

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)

AFFX-HUMGAPDH/M33197_5

 

3.6

 

 

Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 15  (KCNJ15)

D87291

 

3.6

2.0

 

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 2 (NDUFA2)

BC003674

 

3.3

2.4

 

Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP)

AI439556

 

3.2

1.8

 

Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 8 (KCNJ8)

NM_004982

 

3.2

1.8

 

Glycogenin (GYG)

NM_004130

 

3.1

 

 

kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (kynurenine 3-hydroxylase) (KMO)

AI074145

 

2.7

2.2

 

Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) (CP)

NM_000096

 

2.7

 

 

Biotinidase (BTD)

AI767414

 

2.5

1.6

 

Sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2)

AF059203

 

2.4

2.6

 

Carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 (CHST11)

AI806905

 

2.3

2.7

 

SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 (SH3GL2)

NM_003026

 

2.3

1.8

 

Syntaxin 7 (STX7)

NM_003569

 

2.2

1.9

 

Matrix metallopeptidase 3 (stromelysin 1, progelatinase) (MMP3)

NM_002422

 

2.2

2.1

 

Carbonic anhydrase I (CA1)

NM_001738

 

2.1

2.2

 

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 3 (PDK3)

NM_005391

 

2.1

1.6

 

Catalase (CAT)

AY028632

 

2.0

 

 

Synaptotagmin V(SYT5)

NM_003180

 

2.0

1.8

 

Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD)

NM_002631

 

1.9

 

 

Steroid sulfatase, arylsulfatase C, isozyme S (STS)

NM_000351

 

1.8

1.7

 

ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 1 (ABCC1)

NM_004996

 

1.8

2.3

 

Glutathione S-transferase A3 (GSTA3)

NM_000847

 

1.8

 

 

Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORDa)

L29008

 

1.7

2.1

 

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A)

BC000185

 

1.7

 

 

Holocarboxylase synthetase (biotin-(proprionyl-Coenzyme A-carboxylase (ATP-hydrolysing)) ligase) (HLCS)

D87328

 

1.6

 

 

Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS)

NM_000050

 

1.6

 

 

Monoglyceride lipase (MGLL)

BC006230

 

1.6

 

 

NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex, 9 (NDUFA9)

AF050641

 

1.5

 

 

NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex, 10 (NDUFA10)

NM_004544

 

1.5

 

 

DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 18 (DDX18)

NM_006773

 

9.2

9.8

 

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2 (PCSK2)

AL031664

 

7.2

6.5

 

Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 1 (CNGA1)

NM_000087

 

3.7

2.8

 

Cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide (CYBA)

NM_000101

 

2.6

2.1

 

Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3 (CNGA3)

NM_001298

 

1.8

2.1

 

Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase)(HPS3, CP)

AI922198

 

2.4

2.0

 

Phospholipase A2, group IIA (PLA2G2A)

NM_000300

 

 

1.6

 

Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha (IL27RA)

NM_004843

 

 

1.5

Apoptosis

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1)

AL833111

4.7

 

 

 

BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein like (BNIPL)

NM_138279

3.2

 

 

 

Serine/threonine kinase 17b ( STK17B)

AI221707

2.3

 

 

 

Ras homolog gene family, member B (RHOB)

AI263909

 

9.5

13.3

 

Defender against cell death 1 (DAD1)

NM_001344

 

8.4

3.4

 

Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1 (galectin 1)( LGALS1)

NM_002305

 

6.6

3.0

 

Engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1)

NM_014800

 

5.5

4.8

 

Synuclein, alpha ( SNCA)

L36675

 

3.6

2.7

 

Ring finger and FYVE-like domain containing 1(RFFL)

AI760772

 

3.3

3.5

 

Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta (GADD45B)

AF078077

 

2.9

1.7

 

Serine/threonine kinase 4 (STK4)

BE222274

 

2.8

3.0

 

Caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (interleukin 1, beta, convertase)(CASP1)

U13699

 

2.7

 

 

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10 (MAP3K10)

NM_002446

 

2.7

2.7

 

Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly 2A), regulatory subunit A (PR 65), beta isoform (PPP2R1B)

AF163473

 

2.0

1.9

 

Peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2)

L19185

 

1.8

 

 

NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex, 13 (NDUFA13)

NM_015965

 

1.7

 

 

Programmed cell death 8 (PDCD8 )

NM_004208

 

1.7

 

 

TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)

NM_021138

 

1.6

 

 

BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1)

AA394039

 

1.5

 

 

Apolipoprotein E (APOE)

N33009

 

1.5

1.8

 

Caspase 10, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (CASP10)

NM_001230

 

1.5

 

 

Synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)( SNCA)

L36675

 

3.6

2.7

 

Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin)( SPP1)

AB019562

 

 

1.8

 

S100 calcium binding protein, beta (S100B)

BC001766

 

 

1.5

Response to stimulus

Lymphotoxin beta (TNF superfamily, member 3)( LTB)

BC018898

2.8

 

 

 

Calcium-sensing receptor (CASR)

BF061333

2.1

 

 

 

Decay accelerating factor for complement (CD55)( DAF)

CA448665

2.1

 

 

 

DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 1(DNAJA1)

NM_001539

 

8.0

5.6

 

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2)

M57731

 

5.0

5.1

 

CD59 antigen p18-20 (CD59)

BF983379

 

4.5

1.6

 

CD58 antigen, (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) (CD58)

D28586

 

3.6

2.3

 

Decay accelerating factor for complement (DAF)

BC001288

 

2.1

 

 

Coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor)( F12)

BF530348

 

1.7

1.8

 

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)

NM_002985

 

 

1.8

 

Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN)

U65590

 

 

1.8

Signal transduction

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 7 (LGR7)

NM_021634

3.0

 

 

 

SH3 multiple domains 2 (SH3MD2)

AB062480

3.0

 

 

 

GTPase, IMAP family member 1 (GIMAP1)

NM_130759

2.1

 

 

 

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5 (GRM5)

S64316

1.9

 

 

 

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15)

BC000529

1.7

 

 

 

Thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R)

U27325

 

1.7

2.1

 

Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1 (PTPN1)

NM_002827

 

1.5

 

 

SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2)

AB000462

 

1.5

1.9

 

TBC1 domain family, member 4 (TBC1D4)

NM_014832

 

2.7

2.0

Table 1: Transcripts down-regulated by palmitate, with or without pioglitazone or exenatide, in diabetic human islets.