Figure 4: Adaptation of fatty acid palmitate (C16:0) and oleate (C18:1) synthesis and transport to glucose or fructose treatment in HepG2 cells. Glucose (Gluc; 5 mM, middle dark bars) or fructose (Fruct; 5 mM, dark bars) was added to the baseline 4.5 mM glucose (Cont; 4.5 mM glucose, white bars). Ten percent (0.5 mM) glucose was supplied in the form of [1,2-13C2]-D-glucose as the single metabolic tracer in each culture and replaced every 24-h for a total of 72 hours culture. A, 13C content (S�n) of palmitate and B, oleate in cell pellets; C, 13C content (Smn) of palmitate and D, oleate, respectively, in culture media; E, Cell pellet palmitate and F, oleate concentrations; G, Media palmitate and H, oleate concentrations as integrated chromatographic peak area (arbitrary values); I, Intracellular palmitate via de novo synthesis via citrate formation, its shuttling and FAS and J, glucose-derived acetyl-CoA contribution to intracellular palmitate synthesis (percent of total acetyl- CoA from all sources); (n=3; *p < 0.05).