Unadjusted model   Adjusted model
Metabolite β p β p padj1 Δ (%)2
Acylcarnitines
C12 0.17 0.025 0.29 0.002 0.033 16.23
C14:2 0.19 0.019 0.32 0.002 0.029 13.49
C16 0.19 0.004 0.26 0.002 0.025 16.57
C18 0.21 0.001 0.28 4.5×10-4 0.010 18.36
C18:2 0.25 4.1×10-4 0.33 1.7×10-4 0.004 18.62
C5 0.38 2.8×10-9 0.28 2.7×10-4 0.007 31.62
Amino Acids
Glutamine 0.17 0.001 0.22 0.001 0.011 12.70
Biogenic Amines      
Creatinine 0.28 1.1×10-8 0.30 10-8 <10-4 21.42
total DMA 0.13 0.004 0.19 0.001 0.017 9.47
Lyso-Phosphatidylcholines
lysoPC a C18:1 0.18 0.015 0.28 0.002 0.029 12.49
lysoPC a C18:2 0.28 0.001 0.41 3.9×10-5 0.001 19.39
P values and regression coefficients () derived from a linear regression analysis of log-transformed metabolite concentrations measured in 165 study participants (101 men, 64 women). All models were also additionally adjusted for age, waist-to-hip ratio, HDL cholesterol and smoking status
1
padj denotes the p value adjusted for multiple testing by the Westfall and Young Step-Down MaxT procedure with 10,000 permutations
2
? denotes relative sex difference, defined as the difference in mean concentration between men and women, divided by the mean concentration in men
Table 2: Significant Sex Differences in Serum Metabolite Concentration (after correction for multiple testing).