Cancer type Characteristics Reference
Colorectal cancer (CRC) Metabolomics profiles of samples from normal and colorectal cancer were compared and disease associated signals were reported [21]. The unique aspect of this study was that three kinds of samples (tumor, plasma and fecal material) were used from the same patient. Major biomarkers were sarcosine and 2 hydroxyglutarate [21]
Endometrial cancer Zeleniuch-Jacquotte et al. conducted a case-control study (179 cases, 336 controls) nested within 3 prospective cohorts and demonstrated an association between circulating 2- and 16α-hydroxyestrone levels and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. [24]
Ovarian cancer Levels of L-tryptophan, LysoPC (18:3), and 2-Piperidione were found to be lower in epithelial ovarian cancer patients compared to patients with benign ovarian tumors. Their results also helped to identify the role of L-tryptophan and LysoPC in disease progression. In another study, 173 plasma specimens from epithelial ovarian cancer patients (80 newly diagnosed cases and 93 normal individuals) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (UPLCQ-TOF-MS) to determine distinct metabolomic profiles in cases and controls.  [23]
Prostate cancer Sreekumar and colleagues analyzed 1,126 metabolites in a case-control study (242 participants) using a combination of high-throughput liquid and gas chromatography-based MS of urine and plasma samples and identified metabolites that are involved in prostate cancer progression.  [26]
Table 1: Examples of MWAS in cancer and other diseases.