S.No  
1 Osmotic agents (salts)
2 Chelators (EDTA, citrate)
3 Cations
4 Sugars (mannose, maltose, dextrose)
5 Amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamic acid)
6 Redox agents (ascorbate, reducing sugars)
7 Solubilizers (Tween, Deoxycholate)
8 Stabilizers (albumin, lipids)
9 Solvents (aqueous, nonaqueous)
Table 7: Typical formulation candidates for proteins and peptides.