Size range Consequences References
≥2 μm Trapped inside liver cells 118,116
≥200nm Filtered in spleen 121
≤ 100nm Leave blood vessels through endothelial linings 116,122
≥300-400nm Captured by macrophages and excreted out. 116,119
≥ 3µm (for pulmonary administration) Accumulate in upper airways, smaller exhaled out 120
Table 4: Size-based clearance mechanism.