Ref number Authors Responsible candidates Study style
  Year published    
15 Konaka A (1999) Enterobacterial translocation A
2 Wallace JL ( 2012) enteropathy of enteric bacteria, and bile A
16 Wallace JL ( 2011) PPIs exacerbate NSAID-induced intestinal damage A
5 Wallace JL ( 2013) PPI can significantly worsen NSAID-induced damage in the small intestine A
17 Takeuchi K (2010) COX-1 and COX-2 A
18 Hotz-Behofsits C (2010) COX-2 A
19 Tanaka A (1999) Nitric oxide derived by iNOS A
20 Parasher G (2001) Nitric oxide A
21 Xue B (2009) iNOS-dependent nitric oxide A
22 Boelsterli UA (2013) Oxidative metabolites A
23 Omatsu T (2009) Reactive oxygen species CL
24 Matsui H (2011) mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation A
25 Satoh H (2009) Insoluble dietary fibre, intestinal hypermotility, leukotrienes and cholinergic pathways A
26 Nandi J (2010) TNF-alpha A
27 Shiotani A (2011) Combination of low-dose aspirin therapy and thienopyridine C
28 Ramirez-Alcantara V (2009) JNK A
29 Imaoka H (2010) Reg I A
30 Kakimoto K  (2010) MMP-9 A
31 Kubo Y (2010) Urocortin 1(a nonselective CRF receptor agonist) A
32 Yamada S (2011) IL-17A A
33 Higashiyama M (2012) Enhanced platelets-bearing neutrophil migration A
34 Nadatani Y (2012) HMGB1 A
35 Kato S (2012) serotonin (5-HT) 3 receptors A
36 Takagi T (2012) Hemopexin A
Abbreviations
COX-1: Cyclooxygenase 1
COX-2: Cyclooxygenase 2
iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase
JNK: c-Jun-N-terminal kinase
Reg I: Regenerating gene I
MMP-9: Matrix metalloproteinase-9
HMGB1: High mobility group box 1
A: Animal study
CL: Cell line
C: Clinical study
Table 2: Probable mechanisms of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury.