Volatile compounds/ phytochemicals Possible bioactivity Types of vegetablea Reference
1


2


3


4


5
Lactones


Trans-Ocimene


3-Methyl-4-ethylhexane


β-Pinene


9 (Z)-Octadecenamide
Exhibits anti-microbial activity against B. subtilis, P. vulgaris

Exhibits anti-microbial activity against B. cereus

Exhibits anti-microbial activity against E. faecalis

-ditto-


Anti-oxidative and hypolipidemic activity
 
Celery

Siapailene, et al., 2005
Cheng, et al., 2010
6

7


8

9

10

11
β-Selinene

Fenchone 


Eugenol

Thymol

Carvarol

Xanthorrihzol (sesquiterpene)
Anti-oxidant properties

Possess acaricidal activity against D. farina & D. pteronyssinus

Inhibits reactive oxygen species

Good scavengers of peroxyl radicals

-ditto-

Neuroprotective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

Artichoke
Ou, et al., 2006
Kim, et al., 2005
12


13

14

15

16



17

18

19

20
Carotol


Daucol

Undecan-2-one

Sabinene

Anethole



p-anisaldehyde

(+)-Fenchone

Estragol

Kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside
Antifungal, herbicidal and anti-microbial

-ditto-

Anti-microbial & nematocidal

Anti-microbial against B. subtilis

Anti-microbial, estrogenic agent and anti-thrombotic agent. Increases milk secretion/promote menstrual flow

Acaricidal activity

-ditto-

-ditto-

Anti-radical scavenging activities

Carrot

Fennel
Jasicka-Misiak, et al., 2004;
Glisic, et al.,  2007
Ntalli, et al., 2011
Dorman, &Deans 2000
Kubo, et al., 2008
Lee, 2004
Parejo, et al., 2004b
21 Hydrocycinnamates Neuroprotective effect such as Alzheimer’s disease
lettuce
Commenges, et al., 2000
22


23

24

25
3-Butenylisothiocyanate 


4-Pentenylethylisothiocyanate

Benzene propane nitrile

1H-Indole-3-acetonitrile
Inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria

-ditto-

Anti-carcinogenic

-ditto-

Broccoli raab
Jang, et al., 2009
26



27
Lycopene



Limonene
Anti-oxidant activity, reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD)

Antibacterial
Tomato                                               water melon Kardinaal, et al., 1993; Erdman, et al., 2005
28

29

30
Capsidiol

Limonene

Trans-β-ocimene
Bacteriostatic properties

Antibacterial

-ditto-

pepper
Buttery, Seifert, Guadagni, & Ling, 1966  
31


32
Allicin


Dially sulphide
Anti-carcinogen, anti-mutagen and anti-oxidant

Inhibition of colon and oesophageal carcinomas
Onion                                             Garlic Xiao, &Parkin 2002
Wargovich, 1987
33


34
4-Methyliobutyl isothiocyanate

Phenylethyl isothiocyanate
Anti-oxidant action


Chemopreventive properties

Arugula
Lamy, et al., 2008
35


36
Incensole,


α-Copaene
Anti-inflammatory
Antioxidant &

Anticarcinogenic

water dropwort
Moussaieff et al. 2007
37 Anthraquinone Laxative, antimalarial, antineoplastic & in treatment of cancers
Rhubarb
Huang, et al., 2007
38 Dihydroquercetin Antioxidant activity
Peanut
Pratt, &Miller 1984
ahttp://www.bhg.com/gardening/plant-dictionary/vegetables
Table 1: Some volatile constituents of common vegetables and their possible bioactivities.