Author 
Publication year 
Journal name 
Title 
Main features 
Greenland 
2000 
International Journal of Epidemiology 
An introduction to instrumental variables for epidemiologists 
basic introduction with an empirical example
link with randomized studies with noncompliance
estimated bound for the exposure effects 
Martens et al. 
2006 
Epidemiology 
Instrumental variables: application and limitations 
fundamental issues are described with several practical details using graphical representation 
Hernan and Robins 
2006 
Epidemiology 
Instruments for causal inference: an epidemiologists dream? 
overview of IV analysis with explanation of several key assumptions
highlights limitations and emphasis on estimating parameters of IV analysis 
Rassen et al. 
2009 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 
Instrumental variables I: instrumental variables exploit natural variation in nonexperimental data to estimate causal relationships 
demonstrates how IV analysis arises from an analogous but potentially impossible RCT design
shows estimation of effects with an empirical example 
Rassen et al. 
2009 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 
Instrumental variables II: instrumental variable application—in 25 variations, the physician prescribing preference generally was strong and reduced covariate imbalance 
assesses the overall relationship between strength and imbalance of confounders between IV categories with an empirical example
assesses several possible IVs 
Rassen et al. 
2009 
American Journal of Epidemiology 
Instrumental variable analysis for estimation of treatment effects with dichotomous outcomes 
reviews commonly used IV estimation methods for binary outcome and compared them in empirical examples 
Brookhart et al. 
2010 
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 
Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research 
guidance on reporting of IV analysis with an empirical example 
Clarke and Windmeijer 
2010 
Journal of American Statistical Association 
Instrumental variable estimators for binary outcomes 
estimation methods of IV analysis for binary outcome with mathematical descriptions 
Chen and Briesacher 
2011 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 
Use of instrumental variable in prescription drug research with observational data: a systematic review 
review of practice of IV analysis in epidemiology

Palmer et al. 
2011 
American Journal of Epidemiology 
Instrumental variable estimation of causal risk ratios and causal odds ratios in Mendelian randomization 
overview of commonly used IV estimation methods for continuous exposure
empirical example of Mendelian randomization study 
Davies et al. 
2013 
Epidemiology 
Issues in the reporting and conduct of instrumental variable studies: a systematic review 
 review of practice of IV analysis in epidemiology focus on target parameter (e.g. RD, OR)
reviews methods used to estimate standard errors
 proposes a checklist of information to be reported by studies using instrumental variables 
Swanson and Hernan 
2013 
Epidemiology 
Commentary: How to report instrumental variable analyses (suggestions welcome) 
provided flow chart for reporting of IV analyses

Baiocchi et al. 
2014 
Statistics in Med 
Instrumental variable methods for causal inference 
generic tutorial and guidelines of IV analysis with an empirical example 
Garabedian et al. 
2014 
Annals of Internal Medicine 
Potential Bias of Instrumental Variable Analyses for Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research 
this review found that the results of IV analyses may be biased substantially if the IV and outcome are related through an unadjusted third variable: an “IV–outcome confounder”
 the authors caution against overreliance on IV studies comparative effectiveness research 