Author Publication year Journal name Title Main features
Greenland 2000 International Journal of Epidemiology An introduction to instrumental variables for epidemiologists -basic introduction with an empirical example
-link with randomized studies with non-compliance
-estimated bound for the exposure effects
Martens et al. 2006 Epidemiology Instrumental variables: application and limitations -fundamental issues are described with several practical details using graphical representation
Hernan and Robins 2006 Epidemiology Instruments for causal inference: an epidemiologists dream? -overview of IV analysis with explanation of several key assumptions
-highlights limitations and emphasis on estimating parameters of IV analysis
Rassen et al. 2009 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology Instrumental variables I: instrumental variables exploit natural variation in nonexperimental data to estimate causal relationships -demonstrates how IV analysis arises from an analogous but potentially impossible RCT design
-shows estimation of effects with an empirical example
Rassen et al. 2009 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology Instrumental variables II: instrumental variable application—in 25 variations, the physician prescribing preference generally was strong and reduced covariate imbalance -assesses the overall relationship between strength and imbalance of confounders between IV categories with an empirical example
-assesses several possible IVs
Rassen et al. 2009 American Journal of Epidemiology Instrumental variable analysis for estimation of treatment effects with dichotomous outcomes -reviews commonly used IV estimation methods for binary outcome and compared them in empirical examples
Brookhart et al. 2010 Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research -guidance on reporting of IV analysis with an empirical example
Clarke and Windmeijer 2010 Journal of American Statistical Association Instrumental variable estimators for binary outcomes -estimation methods of IV analysis for binary outcome with mathematical descriptions
Chen and Briesacher 2011 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology   Use of instrumental variable in prescription drug research with observational data: a systematic review -review of practice of IV analysis in epidemiology  
Palmer et al. 2011 American Journal of Epidemiology   Instrumental variable estimation of causal risk ratios and causal odds ratios in Mendelian randomization -overview of commonly used IV estimation methods for continuous exposure
-empirical example of Mendelian randomization study
Davies et al. 2013 Epidemiology   Issues in the reporting and conduct of instrumental variable studies: a  systematic review - review of practice of IV analysis in epidemiology -focus on target parameter (e.g. RD, OR)
-reviews methods used to estimate standard errors
- proposes a checklist of information to be reported by studies using instrumental variables
Swanson and Hernan 2013 Epidemiology   Commentary: How to report instrumental variable analyses (suggestions welcome) -provided flow chart for reporting of IV analyses  
Baiocchi et al. 2014 Statistics in Med   Instrumental variable methods for causal inference -generic tutorial and guidelines of IV analysis with an empirical example
Garabedian et al. 2014 Annals of Internal Medicine   Potential Bias of Instrumental Variable Analyses for Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research -this review found that the results of IV analyses may be biased substantially if the IV and outcome are related through an unadjusted third variable: an “IV–outcome confounder”
- the authors caution against overreliance on IV studies comparative effectiveness research
Table 1: Introductory and review articles of instrumental variable analysis in Epidemiologic studies (2000-2014)