Assay PPCP Effect
  5 µg/mL 25 µg/mL 125 µg/mL
MDAb
β-Estradiol + + ++
Gemfibrozil + + +
Catalasec      
β-Estradiol + + +
Gemfibrozil + + +
Electrolyte Leakaged
β-Estradiol + + +
Gemfibrozil + + ++
Chlorophylle
β-Estradiol NC NC NC
Gemfibrozil NC NC NC
aData from Osma et al. (unpublished).
bMalondialdehyde (MDA) is an end product of lipid peroxidation. cProtects plant
cells from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species. dA general indicator of
plant stress.
eTotal of Chlorophyll A + Chlorophyll B.
+: increase in parameter relative to control
++: 2X increase in parameter relative to control NC = no change relative to control
Table 2: Example data from plant (wheat, Triticum aestivum) stress biomarker
responses (relative to controls) to PPCP exposurea.