S.No Herbal drug/ Essential oils tested Effective on Ineffective against References
1 Lemon grass oil
(CymbopogonSpp)
(Important constituents- citralgeraniol, myrcene,neral, limonene, piperitone, citronellal )
S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae P. aeruginosa [46]
Majority ofBacillus spp., Streptoccocusspp., Aeromonasspp., Edwardsiella, BudviciaaquaticaandLeminorellaghirmontii majority ofStaphyloccousspp., Enterococcus spp., Salmonella enterica, Citrobacterspp., Providenciaspp, Kluyveracryocrescens, Enterobacterspp., Proteus spp., Escherichia spp., Serratiaspp., Erwiniaananas, Pragiafontium, Klebsiellaspp. [38]
2 Sage essential oil
(SaviaofficinalisL.)
(Important constituents: pinene, camphene,myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, thujone,camphor, linalool, bornyl acetate and borneol)
Dermatophiluscongolesis, Pasteurellacanis, Plesiomonasshigelloides and Streptococcusspp. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillussubtilis, E. coli, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Salmonella entericassp. entericaserovarTyphimurium [61,62,63,43]
3 Artemesia vulgaris (Important constituents:
Germacrene, Caryophyllene, Zingiberene,Borneol)
Yeast, mold and Bacillusstrains Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcusspp.,
E. coli, Salmonellaand Klebsiellapneumoniae, A.
hydrophila, E. tardastrains.
[44]
4 Caraway essential oil
(CarumcarviL.)
(Important composition: Acetaldehyde, Cumuninic aldehyde, Furfurol, Carvone, Limonene)
Bacillus cereus, Bordetellabronchiseptica, Brucellaabortus, Dermatophiluscongolensis, Erwiniaananas, Escherichia coli (two),Moraxella canis(two),Moraxella osloensis, Pasteurellamultocida, Proteus penneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, RaoultellaterrigenaandStreptococcus pyogenes. Aeromonads [60]
5 Nutmeg essential oil
Myristicafragrans
(Important composition: Sabinene, Camphene, d-Pinene, Dipentene, d-Linalool, d-Borneol, i-Terpineol, Geraniol, Myristcin)
Shigelladysenteriae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteraerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Klebsiellapneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris [64]
6 SelinumwallichianumEssential oil (or)
Milk Parsley
(Important composition: α-bisabolol, farnesol,germacrene D, citronellylpropanoate, α-bisabolol oxide B, sabinene, β-farnesene, limonene)
Reference strains of E. coli, (E3376 and E3382),
Edwarsiellatarda
Bacillus coaggulans, E. coli, Aeromonashydrophila, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Enterococcus [48]
7 Pelargoniumspecies
Rose geranium oil
(Important composition: a-pinene, myrcene, limonene, menthone, linalool, geranyl acetate, citronellol, geraniol and geranyl butyrate )
Streptococcus equissp. equi,
S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae
Streptococcus equissp. zooepidemicus
Staphyloccoccusspp.
[65]
8 MyrtuscommunisL.
(Important constituents: Myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, linalool, limonene, linalyl acetate, geranyl acetate, and α-terpineol)
S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Campylobacter jejuni [34]
9 Acacia nilotica
(Important constituents: Menthol, limonene,Pinene)
Streptococcus mutansATCC-700610, S. bovisATCC 9809, Staphylococcus aureusATCC-29213, Enterococcus faecalisATCC-29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC-27853, Salmonella TphimuriumATCC-13311, E. coliATCC-25922, C. albicansATCC-10231, K. pneumoniaeATCC-700603, E. coli(isolate of nosocomial infection), E. coli(isolates of community acquired infection), C. albicans(isolates of community acquired infection), K. pneumonia (isolates of community acquired infection) E.coli(isolates of community acquired infection) [39]
10 Terminaliaarjuna
(Important constituents: Tannins, triterpenoidsaponins (arjunic acid, arjunolic acid, arjungenin and arjunic acid), flavonoids, gallic acid, ellagic acid, phytosterols.)
Streptococcus mutansATCC-700610, S. bovisATCC 9809,S. aureusATCC-29213, E. faecalisATCC-29212. P. aeruginosaATCC-27853, S. TyphimuriumATCC-13311, E. coliATCC-25922, C. albicansATCC-10231, K. pneumoniaATCC-700603, E. coli(isolate of nosocomial infection), E. coli(isolates of community acquired infection), C. albicans(isolates of community acquired infection), K. pneumoniae(isolates of community acquired infection) [39]
11 Eucalyptus globules
(Important constituents: α-pinene, 1,8-cineol, pinocarveol-trans)
S. mutansATCC-700610, S. aureusATCC-29213, E. faecalisATCC-29212, S. bovisATCC 9809. 27853, S. TyphimuriumATCC-13311, E. coliATCC-25922, C. albicansATCC-10231, K. pneumoniaeATCC-700603, E. coli(isolate of nosocomial infection), E.coli(isolates of community acquired infection), C. albicans(isolates of community acquired infection), K. pneumoniae(isolates of community acquired infection) [39]
12 Syzygiumaromaticum
(Important constituents: eugenol, β-caryophyllene, eugenyl acetate)
S. mutansATCC-700610, S. aureusATCC-29213, E. faecalisATCC-29212, S. bovisATCC 9809, P. aeruginosaATCC-27853, S. TyphimuriumATCC-13311, E. coliATCC-25922, C. albicansATCC-10231, K. pneumoniaeATCC-700603, E. coli(isolate of nosocomial infection), E. coli(isolates of community acquired infection), C. albicans(isolates of community acquired infection), K. pneumoniaeisolates of community acquired infection). E. coli(isolates of community acquired infection) [39]
13 Cinnamomumzeylanicum
(Important constituents: eugenol, linalool, piperitone )
S. mutansATCC-700610, S. aureusATCC-29213, E. faecalisATCC-29212, S. bovisATCC 9809, P.aeruginosaATCC-27853, S. TyphimuriumATCC-13311, E. coliATCC-25922, C. albicansATCC-10231, K. pneumoniaeATCC-700603, E. coli(isolate of nosocomial infection), E. coli(isolates of community acquired infection), C. albicans(isolates of community acquired infection), K. pneumoniae(community acquired infection) E. coli(isolates of community acquired infection) [39]
14 Unripe banana
(Musa sapientum)
(Important constituents: Polyphenols, Phytosterols, starch, fructants)
  E. coliATCC 25922, E. coli, P. aeruginosaand Shigellaflexneri [45]
  15   Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
(Important constituents: phenols andterpenoids)
  E. coliATCC 25922, E. coli,P. aeruginosa, S. flexneri [45]
Table 1: Herbal drug resistance in microbes of clinical importance reported in recent years.