Genus of the isolates Strains from clinical illness and mortality Strains from environment, food, healthy animals, etc. Total strains tested
Strains ACS (%) CipS (%) Strains ACS (%) CipS (%) Strains ACS (%) CipS (%)
Achromobacter 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0) 3 0 (0.0) 3 (100.0)
Acinetobacter 5 3 (60.0) 5 (100.0) 3 0 (0.0) 2 (66.7) 8 3 (37.5) 7 (78.5)
Actinobacillus 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0) 1 1 (100.0) 1 (100.0) 2 1 (50.0) 2 (100.0)
Aerococcus 2 0 (0.0) 1 (50.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 0 (0.0) 1 (50.0)
Aeromonas 9 0 (0.0) 7 (77.8) 3 0 (0.0) 2 (66.7) 12 0 (0.0) 9 (75.0)
Agrobacterium 0 0 (0.0) 0(0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0) 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0)
Alcaligenes 9 0 (0.0) 7 (77.8) 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 11 0 (0.0) 9 (81.8)
Aspergillus 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 5 4 (80.0) 0 (0.0) 5 4 (80.0) 0 (0.0)
Bacillus 20 11 (55.0) 16 (80.0) 3127 23 (74.2) 3(75.0) 5127 34 (66.7) 19 (79.2)
Bordetella 1 1 (100.0) 1 (100.0) 7 1 (14.3) 7 (100.0) 8 2 (250.0) 8 (100.0)
Brucella 22 12 (54.5) 16 (72.7) 4 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0) 26 14 (53.8) 18 (69.2)
Budvicia 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0)
Burkholderia 9 9 (100.0) 7 (77.8) 4 1 (25.0) 4 (100.0) 13 10 11
Campylobacter 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 0 (0.0) 4 (100.0) 4 0 (0.0) 4 (100.0)
Candida 8 3 (37.5) 0 (0.0) 4 2 (50.0) 0 (0.0) 12 5 (41.7) 0 (0.0)
Citrobacter 3 0 (0.0) 3 (100.0) 1917 4(21.1) 2 (100.0) 2217 4 (18.2) 5 (100.0)
Corynebacterium 2 2 (100.0) 1 (50.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 2 (100.0) 1 (50.0)
Dermatophilus 2 2 (100.0) 1 (50.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 2 (100.0) 1 (50.0)
Edwardsilella 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 22 2 (100.0) NT 42 2 (50.0) 2 (100.0)
Enterobacter 30 3 (10.0) 25 (83.3) 228 0 (0.0) 12 (85.7) 528 3 (5.8) 37 (84.1)
Enterococcus 11 1 (9.1) 9 (81.8) 6464 27 (42.2) NT 7564 28 (37.3) 9 (81.8)
Erwinia 6 0 (0.0) 5 (83.3) 41 2 (50.0) 3 (100.0) 101 2 (20.0) 8 (88.9)
Escherichia 136 2 (1.5) 111 (81.6) 2412 2 (8.3) 11 (91.7) 16012 4 (2.5) 122 (82.4)
Geotrichum 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Hafnia 3 0 (0.0) 2 (66.7) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 0 (0.0) 2 (66.7)
Klebsiella 25 0 (0.0) 22 (88.0) 157 0 (0.0) 8 (100.0) 407 0 (0.0) 30 (90.9)
Kluyvera 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0)
Listeria 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 1 (100.0) 1 (100.0) 1 1 (100.0) 1 (100.0)
Micrococcus 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 22 2 (100.0) NT 32 2 (66.7) 0 (0.0)
Moraxella 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 1 (50.0) 2 (100.0) 2 1 (50.0) 2 (100.0)
Morganella 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Mycoplasma 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0)
Pasteurella 25 11 (44.0) 15 (60.0) 12 2 8 (66.7) 37 13 (35.1) 23 (62.2)
Pediococcus 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Pragia 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 99 3 (33.3) NT 119 3 (27.3) 2 (100.0)
Proteus 20 0 (0.0) 18 (90.0) 2 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 22 0 (0.0) 20 (90.9)
Pseudomonas 48 6 (12.5) 34 (70.8) 111 2 (18.2) 9 (90.0) 591 8 (13.6) 43 (74.1)
Raoultella 3 0 (0.0) 2 (66.7) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 0 (0.0) 2 (66.7)
Rhodotorula 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0) 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0)
Salmonella 18 0 (0.0) 14 (77.8) 3023 1 (3.3) 7(100.0) 4823 1 (2.1) 21 (84.0)
Serratia 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0) 11 0 (0.0) NT 21 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0)
Shingomonas 2 0 (0.0) 1 (50.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 0 (0.0) 1 (50.0)
Staphylococcus 45 10 (22.2) 40 (88.9) 3213 17 (53.1) 15 (78.9) 7713 27 (35.1) 55 (85.9)
Streptobacillus 1 1 (100.0) 1 (100.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 1 (100.0) 1 (100.0)
Streptococcus 69 30 (43.5) 58 (84.1) 105 6 (60.0) 4 (80.0) 795 36 (45.6) 62 (83.8)
Trichosporum 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Trichophyton 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Vibrio 2 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 1 (100.0) 1 (100.0)
Yersinia 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0) 1 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0)
All 549 108 (19.7) 432 (78.7) 340192 106 (31.2) 119 (80.4) 889192 214 (24.1) 551 (79.1)
ACS, sensitive to ACME; CipS, sensitive to ciprofloxacin; superscript numbers shows strains not tested for ciprofloxacin sensitivity. Isolates from mortal and clinical cases were almost two times more often resistant to ACME than those isolated from non-clinical sources (p = 0.0001).
Table 1: Microbes of different genera isolated from clinical and nonclinical sources and their sensitivity to 2 mg Ageratum conyzoides methanolic extract (ACME) and 10 μg ciprofloxacin (Cip) discs.