Authors Participants Inventory Results
Peukert et al. [24] N = 2506 German students (n = 950 males), age M = 23.9, SD = 3.85 were divided into two subgroups: CIUSRisk group n=90 vs. control group n=90 CIUS, daily average Internet use duration, German Depression Scale, European Addiction Severity Index, Quality of life The CIUSRisk group (high CIUS-values) showed increased depressive and manic affect profiles and lower quality of life. Concerning lifetime psychopathology the CIUSRisk group reported more depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, ADHD and suicidal ideation.
Barke et al. [25] 1. sample (online) N=1041; 2. sample (paper pencil, students) N=841; 3. sample (retest sample, students) N=105 GPIUS2, IAT, UCLA-Loneliness Scale, State-Trait-Depression Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluations Scale The GPIUS2 scores correlated strongly with depression (r=.54). Depression along with loneliness and social anxiety explained 46% of the variance in GPIUS2 scores.
Müller et al. [26] N=290 German treatment seekers in an outpatient clinic specialized for behavioral addictions at the age between 18 and 64 years AICA-S; diagnostic interviews to assess symptoms of Internet addiction; SCL-90-R; PHQ 71% of the sample was classified as being Internet addicted. Half of the patients with Internet addiction met criteria for one further psychiatric disorder according to clinical interviews, especially depressive disorders.
Wölfling et al. [27] Two groups: 1. N=71 male patients meeting criteria for comorbid Internet addiction vs. 2. control group of N=58 male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use age between 16 and 65 years AICA-S, SCL-90-R, PHQ, the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, subjective perceived impairment of the general health condition (3 items) Comorbid Internet addiction was associated among others with higher levels of depression. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders, especially depression.
Müller et al. [28] N=71 patients (64% boys) between the age of 8 and 17 in psychiatric inpatient settings AICA-S, Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist 11.3 % of the patients fulfilled the criteria of addictive Internet use. These patients were older and more often affected by anxiety and depression than patients without Internet addiction.
Fischer et al. [29] N=1435 students (48% boys) Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, BDI, Deliberate Self Harm Inventory, Paykel Suicide Scale 80.7% of the students reported regular, 14.5% risky, and 4.8 % pathological Internet use. The risky and the pathological Internet users showed significant higher rates of depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behavior compared to students with regular internet use.
Beutel et al. [23] Representative sample of N=1401 females, N=1111 males between the ages of 14 and 94 years; randomly selected subjects face-to-face interviews, Cambridge Depersonalization Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Internet use was measured with single items There was no difference between problematic and normal Internet users regarding anxiety or depression.
teWildt et al. [30] N=18 Internet-dependent patients with depressive mood disorder vs. matched control participants Barrat Impulsiveness Scale, Internet addiction scale, BDI, SCL-90-R subscale for depression, Sense of Coherence Scale, Dissociative Experience Scale, Inventory for interpersonal problems Within the initial sample of N=23 Internet dependent patients, 18 (78.3%) were diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Patients with Internet dependency scored significantly higher in BIS, Depression (BDI) and SCL-90R subscale for depression than the control group.
Note. AICA-S: Scale for the Assessment of Internet and Computer game Addiction; SCL-90-R: Symptom Checklist 90R; PHQ: Patient Health Questionnaire; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; GPIUS2: Generalized Pathological Internet Use Scale; IAT: Internet addiction test; CIUS: Compulsive Internet Use Scale
Table 1: Overview on studies investigating the relationship between PIU and depression, ADHD.