Author Year Study design Country Income group Region Number analyzed M (%) Age (years) HIV duration (years) ART (%) Incarcerated (%) Homosexual (%)
Ajuoga 2009 Cross-sectional USA High America 215 69 45 ± 8.3        
Altice 2011 Cohort USA High America 295 68.1 45.2 ± 8.2   59.7   19
Belloso 2010 Cohort Multiple LMIC America 520     5.5 ± 4.4 80    
Berg 2009 RCT USA High America 77 53 47 ± 6.9 13 ± 4 100    
Bertolaccini 2008 Cohort Italy High Europe 26 85 39 ± 6.1   85   23
Buchacz 2008 Cohort USA High America 7155 80.5         58.5
Castellares 2008 Cross-sectional Spain High Europe 2168 76.2 42 ± 6       34
Chander 2006 Cohort USA High America 1957 63.7     73.2   23.6
Chao 2012 Cohort USA High America 12872 90 40.1 ± 9.8 2.8 ± 4.1 21.1   61.6
Fuster 2014 Cohort USA High America 400 74.7 43 ± 7.4   62    
Fuster 2013 Cross-sectional USA High America 308 73.1 42.8 ± 7.3   60.4    
Goar 2011 Cross-sectional Nigeria LMIC Africa 160 35.6          
Goh 2007 Cross-sectional Singapore High W/Pacific 96 89.6 40.2 ± 7.3       22
Green 2010 Cohort USA High America 3160 97.5 49.4 ± 8.8        
Grzeszczuk 2015 Cross-sectional Poland LMIC Europe 457 76.6 38 ± 6.1 10 ± 3.3   23.4 8.8
Hayashi 2015 Cross-sectional Thailand LMIC W/Pacific 128 80.4     54.7 93.3  
Helleberg 2013 Cohort Denmark High Europe 2921 77.5 43.3 ± 6.6 7 ± 2.6 77.4   52.9
Hsu 2013 Cohort USA High America 30533 95.5 50.3 ± 11        
Ibrahim 2014 Cross-sectional Nigeria LMIC Africa 250 47.6          
Ikeda 2013 Cross-sectional Brazil LMIC America 1240 50.6 39.1 ± 10   65.7    
Josephs 2010 Cross-sectional USA High America 951 68     69   34
Justice 2010 Cohort USA High America 9784 97.9 45        
Kabali 2011 Cohort USA High America 462 77          
Kagimu 2012 Case-control Uganda LMIC Africa 106 18          
Kellerman 2003 Cohort USA High America 16248 70.8     47.1   38.4
Kellinghaus 2008 Cross-sectional Germany High Europe 51 74.5 37 ± 2.5   72.6    
Kim 2006 Cohort USA High America 349 89.3 40.7 ± 7.2   31.8 17.8  
Korthuis 2015 Cohort USA High America 3038 97.5 49 ± 8.8   83.9    
Korthuis 2012 Cross-sectional USA High America 3410 97.4 49.1 ± 8.8   83.2    
Krupitsky 2005 Cross-sectional Russia High Europe 201 62 26.6 ± 8.2        
Lim 2014 Cross-sectional USA High America 2111 97.7 48.5 ± 2.5   82.6    
Luo 2013 Cross-sectional China LMIC W/Pacific 551 66.2     67.5 9.3  
Mayer 2010 Cross-sectional USA High America 398 100 41.5 ± 8.4 8.6 ± 6.7 66.1   100
Mayer 2012 Cohort USA High America 557 78.6 42 ± 2.8 4.9 ± 1.5 78   65.5
McGinnis 2013 Cohort USA High America 444 50 ± 8.4        
Merlin 2012 Cohort USA High America 1521 42.3 43.7       54.9
Merlin 2013 Cross-sectional USA High America 1903 77.4 43.6       52.7
Metsch 2009 Cross-sectional USA High America 1038 62     42 31.4  
Miaskowski 2011 Cross-sectional USA High America 296 70.7 48.2 ± 7.3   74.4    
Mijch 2006 Cohort Australia High W/Pacific 2981 93.5         4.3
Moore 2012 Cross-sectional USA High America 117 87.5 43.7 ± 7.8        
Nahvi 2012 RCT USA High America 77 53 47 ± 7   100    
Nakimuli-Mpungu 2011 Cross-sectional Uganda LMIC Africa 500 30.2          
Newville 2015 Cross-sectional USA High America 295 67.8 47.5 ± 9.7 11.5 100    
Nicolleti 2007 Cross-sectional Brazil LMIC America 385 70 37.5 ± 8.6   70    
Nunes 2006 Cross-sectional USA High America 401 73     59 23  
Obel 2011 Cohort Denmark High Europe 2267 73.9 40.8 ± 3.6 5.3     38.5
Omland 2010 Cohort Denmark High Europe 392 59.5 39 ± 2.6 6.5 ± 3 37.5    
Pace 2012 Cross-sectional Russia High Europe 682 60 30 ± 5.2   17.2 38.1 2.1
Pakkala 2012 Cohort USA High America 80 80 52   70   19
Pintado 2001 Cross-sectional Spain High Europe 80 80         7.5
Robinson-Papp 2012 Cohort USA High America 636 77 41        
Ruan 2007 Cohort China LMIC W/Pacific 229 82.1          
Ryan 2004 Cross-sectional USA High America 107 81.3 43.5 ± 7.2        
Salmon-Ceron 2009 Cohort France High Europe 898 75 46 11.8 88   26
Sambamoorthi 2000 Cross-sectional USA High America 5559 54.2     58.8    
Scribner 2000 Case-control USA High America 75 89.3 39.5       61
Siemieniuk 2012 Cross-sectional Canada High America 687 45 ± 10.2     10.5  
Silverberg 2013 Cohort USA High America 4137 87.6 47.2 ± 8.8 10 ± 5.9 81.1   61.6
Sullivan 2006 RCT USA High America 16 94 47.2 ± 8.5        
Surrat 2013 Cross-sectional USA High America 503 59.5 46.1 ± 7.8 13.3 ± 7.3    
Tabarsi 2012 Cross-sectional Iran LMIC E/Mediterranean 111 96.4 38 ± 9   26.1 88.1 0.9
Tetrault 2012 Cohort USA High America 114 97 49   52    
Towner 2012 Cohort USA High America 20775 91 41 3.5 33   59
Tsui 2012 Cohort USA High America 397 74.8 42.5 ± 7.5        
Tyurina 2013 Cohort Russia High Europe 700 59.3 30.1 ± 5.2   17.3    
Vagenas 2014 RCT USA High America 85 78.8 46   81.2    
Vallecillo 2013 Cross-sectional Spain High Europe 91 63.7 44.5 ± 8   74.7    
Van der Werf 2006 Cross-sectional Ukraine High Europe 968 73.6       12.1  
Vergara-Rodriguez 2011 Cohort USA High America 303       60    
Vidrine 2006 RCT USA High America 95 77.9 42.9 ± 8.1       37.9
Whetten 2012 Cross-sectional USA High America 611 68.7 40.1 ± 25       44.5
Table 1: Characteristics of eligible studies, ART: antiretroviral therapy; E/Mediterranean: eastern mediterranean; LMIC: low- and middle-income country; M: males; W/Pacific