Authors & Year Participants Age Marijuana Use Classification Field Strength & Spatial Localization Regions of Interest MRS Results Clinical or Cognitive MRS Correlates
Chang et al., 2006 [43] 42 HIV+
21 MJ (3F)
21 CON (4F)
54 HIV-
24 MJ (4F)
30 CON (6F)
42.7 ± 1.7
44.2 ± 3.0
36.3 ± 2.3
42.2 ± 2.2
> 4 days/week 4T Varian
SV MRS
Thal, rBG, FWM, CBV, rPar WM, occ WM ↓ BG [NAA] HIV+- MJ
[mI] [Cho] [Glu] HIV- MJ
↑ Thal [Cr] HIV- MJ
↑ FWM [Glu] HIV+ MJ
↓ BG [Cho] ↑ MJ use
↑ FWM [Glu]
↑ duration use HIV+ MJ
Hermann et al., 2007 [44] 13 MJ (0F)
13 CON (0F)
22.2 ± 2.0
23.0 ± 2.0
near-daily MJ use 1.5T Siemens MRSI BG, Thal, DLPFC, FWM, HC, VTA, ACC, PCC ↓ DLPFC NAA/tCr MJ none significant
Cowan et al., 2009  [45] 17 polypro (aF) (ecst, alc, MJ, coc) 21.6 ± 2.7 ≥ 500 lifetime episodes of MJ use 3T GE
3T Philips
SV MRS
lBA18, BA21, BA45 no non-MJ group
comparisons
↑ lifetime MJ use
↓ lBA 45 NAA/Cr
Prescot et al., 2011 [32] 17 MJ (2F)
17 CON (9F)
17.8 ± 1.1
16.2 ± 2.1
≥ 100 past year MJ use 3T Siemens
SV MRS
ACC ↓ ACC Glu/H20 NAA/H20 tCr/H20 mI/H20 MJ none significant
Silveri et al., 2011 [33] 15 MJ-depend (0F)
11 NU (0F)
21.2 ± 3.4
25.0 ± 4.8
DSM-IV criteria for MJ dependence 4T Varian
MRSI
multiple voxels in MTL ↓ global mI/Cr MJ
↓ WM mI/Cr MJ
↑ MJ use, ↓ onset use
↓ non-planning
↑ cognitive impulsivity (BIS)
↓ depression (BDI)
↑ tension (POMS)
Sung et al., 2013 [48] 9 MA (6F)
8 MA + MJ (5F)
10 CON (7F)
15.7 ± 1.4
16.2 ± 1.2
16.8 ± 0.6
K-SADS criteria for MJ dependence 3T Siemens
SV MRS
midfrontal GM ↓ NAA/tCr
MA + MJ
↑ lifetime MJ dose
↓ onset MJ use
↓ duration of MJ use
Mashhoon et al., in press [46] 13 MJ-depend (0F)
10 NU (0F)
21.3 ± 3.6
24.7 ± 4.9
DSM-IV criteria for MJ dependence 4T Varian
MRSI
Thal, TC, POC ↓ lThal mI/Cr MJ ↑ cognitive impulsivity
Prescot et al., 2013 [47] 13 MJ (2F)
16 CON (9F)
17.9 ± 1.0
16.0 ± 2.2
≥ 100 past year MJ use 3T Siemens
SV MRS
ACC ↓ ACC GABA/H20 Glu/H20 NAA/H20 tCr/H20 mI/H20 MJ none significant
Table 1: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Investigations of Marijuana Effects.