Parameter Total sample
    (n=487)
Non-smokers
   (n=388)
Smokers
   (n=99)
      p
Demographics
Age–mean (SD) 24.2(2.6) 24.3(2.7) 23.7(2.3) 0.046
Sex, female–n (%) 233(48.3) 191(49.5) 42(43.8) 0.315
Family status, married–n (%) 40(8.3) 34(8.8)   6(6.1) 0.388
Measured alcohol consumption* – mean (SD)
Wine 1.35(1.46) 1.31(1.45) 1.48(1.53) 0.476
Beer 1.05(1.57) 0.9(1.46) 1.67(1.82) <0.001
Spirits 1.25(2.39) 1.02(2.01) 2.14(3.38) <0.001
Total 3.65(3.84) 3.23(3.55) 5.3(4.49) <0.001
HSS** parameters- mean (SD)
Headache on the morning after 0.7(0.94) 0.64(0.9) 0.97(1.01) 0.001
Woke up tired 1.07(1.13) 0.96(1.1) 1.48(1.15) <0.001
Difficulties falling asleep    0.4(1.13) 0.31(0.68) 0.78(1.16) <0.001
Nausea on the morning after 0.6(0.92) 0.53(0.88) 0.88(1.03) <0.001
Thirst 1.32(1.24) 1.16(1.18) 1.92(1.31) <0.001
Vomited on the morning after 0.37(0.74) 0.3(0.66) 0.62(0.93) <0.001
Tremor/chills on the morning after 0.16(0.58) 0.11(0.51) 0.32(0.81) 0.001
Difficulties concentrating   0.59(0.89) 0.48(0.79) 0.98(1.12) <0.001
Anxious on the morning after 0.1(0.45) 0.08(0.35) 0.21(0.7) 0.144
Weakness on the morning after 0.57(0.9) 0.49(0.83) 0.87(1.09) 0.001
Felt depressed 0.16(0.49) 0.12(0.42) 0.31(0.68) 0.001
Diaphoresis 0.12(0.48) 0.07(0.35) 0.31(0.79) <0.001
Sensitivity to light and sound 0.34(0.73) 0.28(0.66) 0.58(0.92) <0.001
* Alcohol consumption measured as number of “drinks” (1/3 liter of beer, glasses of wine, single measure of spirit) per week
** HSS - Hangover Symptom Scale
Table 1: Baseline characteristics and Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS) parameters of study population and in the groups in accordance of smoking status.