Figure 1: Interactive effects of OPRM1, OPRD1, and OPRK1 variants on alcohol, cocaine, or opioid dependence.
Two-locus marker-based gene-gene interaction analysis was performed using the program Pattern Examiner to indentify marker patterns which were significantly more frequent in cases than in controls. 12 significant patterns in the alcohol dependence (AD) dataset, four significant patterns in the cocaine dependence (CD) dataset, and 18 significant patterns in the opioid dependence (OD) dataset were identified.