Smoking status
  Former smokers Current Smokers
  Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
  OR (95% CIs) OR (95% CIs) OR (95% CIs) OR (95% CIs)
Sociodemographics        
Age (per 10 years)a 1.3 (1.2-1.5) 1.3 (1.2-1.5)** 1.0 (0.9-1.1) 1.0 (0.9-1.2)
Gender/sexual orientation        
   Women 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Male heterosexual 2.1 (1.5-3.0) 2.3(1.5-3.2)** 1.5 (1.1-2.0) 1.8(1.3-2.6)**
MSM 1.9 (1.5-2.7) 1.7(1.2-2.4)* 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.5(1.1-1.9)*
Race/ethnicity        
Caucasian 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
African American 0.4 (0.3-0.5) 0.6(0.5-0.8)** 0.6 (0.5-0.6) 0.7(0.6-0.9)*
Clinical        
ART Adherence        
Adherent 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Non-adherent 0.8 (0.5-1.2) 0.9 (0.6-1.5) 1.5 (1.1-1.9) 1.1 (0.7-1.6)
Comorbiditiesb        
Cardiovascular 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 0.9 (0.8-1.3) 0.7 (0.5-0.8) 0.8 (0.6-0.9)*
Respiratory 1.0 (0.8-1.4) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 1.5 (1.2-1.9)*
Metabolic 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 0.7 (0.6-0.9) 0.8 (0.6-0.9)*
Any cancer 1.4 (1.0-1.9) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 0.8 (0.6-1.1) 0.7 (0.5-1.1)
Laboratory parameters c        
Plasma HIV-1 (copies/mL)        
Undetectable (<50) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Detectable (≥50) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 1.2 (0.8-1.6) 1.6 (1.3-1.9) 1.5 (1.1-1.9)*
CD4 count (cells/µL)        
<200 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
200-350 1.3 (0.8-2.0) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 0.9 (0.6-1.2)
>350 1.2 (0.8-1.7) 0.7 (0.5-1.2) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 0.8 (0.5-1.2)
Psychosocial        
Depression        
Not depressed 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Depressed 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 2.3 (1.9-2.8) 1.6 (1.3-2.0)**
Anxiety        
No anxiety 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Anxiety 1.7 (1.3-2.2) 1.5 (1.1-2.0)* 2.4 (1.9-2.9) 1.6 (1.2-2.1)*
Substance use d        
Never 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Prior 4.3 (3.3-5.6) 3.2 (2.5-4.3)** 5.6 (4.5-7.1) 4.7 (3.6-6.1)**
Current 3.0 (1.8-5.2) 2.6 (1.4-4.6)* 11.0 (7.2-16.8) 8.3(5.3-13.3)**
Abbreviations: AIDS- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; ART- Antiretroviral Therapy; CI- Confidence Interval; HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus; MSM- Men who have sex with men; UAB- University of Alabama, Birmingham All the variables were included in the adjusted model. Boldface indicates statistical significance: *P<0.05 levels, **P<0.001. Non-smokers were used as the reference group. All the variables were added in the adjusted model a Odds ratio per 10-year increment; bcomorbidities: Cardiovascular (stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disease, hypertension); Respiratory (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bacterial pneumonia); Metabolic (diabetes and dyslipidemia), patients without comorbidities were used as the reference group; c Lab value closest on or prior to index visit; d substance abuse (opioids, marijuana, crack/cocaine, amphetamine)
Table 2: Multinomial logistic regression model examining the factors associated with current and former smoking among HIV-positive patients receiving care at the UAB 1917 HIV/AIDS clinic April 2008-December 2013 (N = 2,464).