HIV-positive HI- negative Total
    n = 206 (36%) n = 367 (64%) N = 573 (100%)
Age (years, mean ± SD) 35.00 ± 7.78 36.31±8.42 35.82±8.21
Education (years, mean ± SD) 9.34 ± 2.36 9.77 ± 3.17 9.62 ± 2.91
Age at first drug use (years, mean ± SD) 21.86 ± 6.84 22.70 ± 7.81 22.40 ± 7.48
Age at first injecting heroin (years, mean ± SD) 25.25 ± 6.45 25.85 ± 6.44 25.63 ± 6.45
Age at first sexual coitus (years, mean ± SD) 16.65 ± 3.34 16.94 ± 3.02 16.84 ± 3.14
HIV transmission knowledge** (range1-7,mean±SD) 6.37 ± 0.94 5.58 ± 1.24 5.72 ± 1.27
Polydrug use in last 6 months** Yes 64 (35%) 178 (51%) 242 (45%)
(n = 534)a NO 120 (65%) 172 (49%) 292 (55%)
HCV** (n = 552)a Positive 104 (50.5%) 41 (11%) 428 (75%)
  Negative 102 (49.5%) 326 (89%) 145 (25%)
RuJu** (penis bead insertion) Yes 111 (54%) 121 (33%) 232 (40%)
  No 95 (46%) 246 (67%) 341 (60%)
Used condom at last sex (n = 553)a Yes 54 (23%) 72(20%) 117 (21%)
  No 150 (77%) 286 (80%) 436 (79%)
Sexual partner used heroin** (n = 559)a Yes 60(30%) 63(18%) 123(22%)
  No 138(70%) 298(82%) 436(78%)
Multiple sexual partners** Yes 51(25%) 143(39%) 194(34%)
  No 155(75%) 224(61%) 379(66%)
Injected heroin in last 6 months** Yes 203(99%) 303(83%) 506(88%)
  No 3(1%) 64(17%) 67(11%)
Shared needle at last injection** Yes 61(30%) 42(11%) 103(18%)
  No 145(70%) 325(89%) 470(82%)
Shared rinse water at last Yes 90(44%) 57(16%) 147(26%)
injection** No 116(56%) 310(84%) 426(74%)
*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; aMissing values were omitted from the statistical analyses;
Note: χ2 and t tests were used to examine differences between the HIV groups on categorical and continuous variables respectively. A Fisher exact test was performed to examine the relationship between HIV and heroin injection during the past 6 months

Table 1: Demographics, clinical characteristics and HIV risks as a function of the HIV status of male heroin abusers from drug detention centers.
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