Variable OI present (N= 76) OI absent (N =263) Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
HIV duration (years)
<3 (N= 117)
≥3 (N= 222)
41 (35.0%, 53.9%)
35 (15.8%, 46.1%)
76 (65.0%, 28.9%)
187 (84.2%, 71.1%)
2.88 (1.65-5.04)
1.0
<0.0001
HAART duration
<36 months (N= 173)
≥36 months (N= 166)
50 (28.9%, 65.8%)
26 (15.7%, 34.2%)
123 (71.1%, 46.8%)
140 (84.3%, 53.2%)
2.19 (1.29-3.89)
1.0
0.003
HAART non-adherence
Yes (N= 76)
No (N= 263)
41 (53.9%, 53.9%)
35 (13.3%, 46.1%)
35 (46.1%, 13.3%)
228 (86.7%, 86.7%)
7.63 (4.30-13.55)
1.0
<0.0001
Cotrim. prophylaxis
No (N= 42)
Yes (N= 297)
10 (23.8%, 13.2%)
66 (22.2%, 86.8%)
32 (76.2%, 12.2%)
231 (77.8%, 87.8%)
1.09 (0.48-2.47)
1.0
0.82
Baseline WHO stage
3-4 (N= 99)
1-2 (N= 245)
50 (53.2%, 65.8%)
26 (10.6%, 34.2%)
44 (46.8%, 16.7%)
219 (89.4%, 83.3%)
9.57 (5.19-17.74)
1.0
<0.0001
Baseline CD4 (cells/µl)
<200 (N= 168)
≥200 (N= 171)
56 (33.3%, 73.7%)
20 (11.7%, 26.3%)
112 (66.7%, 42.6%)
151 (88.3%, 57.4%)
3.76 (2.14-6.65)
1.0
<0.0001
Current CD4 (cells/µl)
<200 (N= 75)
≥200 (N= 264)
38 (50.7%, 50.0%)
38 (14.4%, 50.05)
37 (49.3%, 14.1%)
226 (85.6%, 85.9%)
6.11 (3.46-10.78)
1.0
<0.0001
Baseline Hb (g/dl)
<10 (N= 76)
≥10 (N= 263)
35 (46.1%, 46.1%)
41 (15.6%, 53.9%)
41 (53.9%, 15.6%)
222 (84.4%, 84.4%)
4.62 (2.64-8.10)
1.0
<0.0001
Current Hb (g/dl)
<10 (N= 36)
≥10 (N= 303)
18 (50.0%, 23.7%)
58 (19.1%, 76.3%)
18 (50.0%, 6.8%)
245 (80.9%, 93.2%)
4.22 (2.07-8.62)
1.0
<0.0001
BMI (current) [Kg/m2]
<25 (N= 203)
≥25 (N= 136)
53 (26.1%, 69.7%)
23 (16.9%, 30.3%)
150 (73.9%, 57.0%)
113 (83.1%, 43.0%)
1.74 (0.97-3.11)
1.0
0.05
Diabetes
Yes (N= 11)
No (N= 328)
1 (9.1%, 1.3%)
75 (22.9%, 98.7%)
10 (90.9%, 3.8%)
253 (77.1%, 96.2%)
0.34 (0.02-2.62)
1.0
0.47
Hypertension
Yes (N= 52)
No (N=287)
9 (17.3%, 11.8%)
67 (23.3%, 88.2%)
43 (82.7%, 16.3)
220 (76.7%, 83.6%)
0.69 (0.30-1.56)
1.0
0.34
Alcohol consumption
Yes (N= 72)
No (N= 267)
15 (20.8%, 19.7%)
61 (22.8%, 80.3%)
57 (79.2%, 21.7%)
206 (77.2%, 78.3%)
0.89 (0.45-1.75)
1.0
0.72
Smoking
Yes (N= 24)
No (N= 315)
6 (25.0%, 7.9%)
70 (22.2%, 92.1%)
18 (75.0%, 6.8%)
245 (77.8%, 93.2%)
1.17 (0.40-3.27)
1.0
0.75
BMI= body mass index; HAART= highly active antiretroviral therapy; Hb= hemoglobin
OI= opportunistic infection; WHO= world health organization
Percentages in bracket are for rows and columns respectively.
Table 4: Clinical risk factors for opportunistic infections in patients on HAART (univariate analysis).
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