Sample year Location Study group Age* N (% male) Genotypes (RT/PR) Prevalence of HIV drug resistance: overall and per class of antiretroviral drug Ref
Overall NRTI NNRTI PI
n (%) (95% CI)‡ n (%) Mutation n (%) Mutation n(%) Mutation
Proxy recent infection
2005-06 HCMC† Pregnant women 25 163 (0.0) 163/163 1 (0.6) (0.02, 3.4) 1 (0.6) V75M 0 (0) - 0 (0) - (32)
2006 HCMC VCT attendees 22.3 63 (46.0) 63/63 2 (3.2) (0.9, 10.9) 0 (0) - 1 (1.6) G190A 1 (1.6) M46I (33)
2006 Ha Noi§ VCT attendees 23.0 70 (NR) 49/49 1 (<5) NA 1 (<5) L74V 1 (<5) Y181C 0 (<5) - (34)
2007-08 HCMC§ VCT attendees <25 73 (NR) 73/73 NR (5-15) NA NR D67N, K70R, T215F, K219EQ NR K103N, Y181C, G190A/CS, P225HP 1 (<5) F63Y (35)
Chronic infection
2001-02 HCMC CSW, IDU, and STD patients 23.0 200 (60.5) 200/200 13 (6.5) (3.5, 10.9) 9 (4.5) M41L, M184V, K219Q 0 (0) - 4 (2.0) D30N, L90M (67)
2005-07 HCMC HIV-positive people with TB meningitis NR 220 (NR) 219/219 14 (6.4) (3.5, 10.5) 9 (4.1) D67N, T69D, L74V, V75M, M184V, K219R 6 (2.7) K103N, V106M, Y181C, Y188L, G190A 0 (0) - (37)
2007 Hai Phong CSW, IDU, pregnant women, blood donors NR 301 (>90.0) 273/294 8 (2.9) (1.3, 5.7) 3 (1.1) L74I, M184I, K219E 5 (1.8) K103N, G190E 1 (0.3) M46I (68)
2008 Multi-provinces** Unknown 32.0 206 (80.1) 155/173 10 (6.5) (3.1, 11.5) 5 (3.2) M41L, A62V, D67N, K65R, M184V, L210W, T215F 5 (3.2) K103N, V108I, Y181C, G190A 3(1.7) L33F M46IL (38)
2008-09 Quang Ninh Pre-ART people NR 63 (NR) 63/63 4 (6.3) (1.8, 15.5) 3 (4.8) L74I, V75M, L210W 1 (1.6) Y181C 0 (0) - (39)
2008-09 HCMC† Pre-ART people 30 140 (NR) 140/140 NR NA 8 (5.7) NR 7(5.0) NR 2 (1.3) NR (36)
2008-09 Multi-provinces†† CSW and IDU 29.0 122 (60.6) 92/92 7 (7.6) (3.1, 15.1) 6 (6.5) M41L, K65R, V75A/M, M184V 6 (6.5) K103N, Y181C, G190A, P225H 0 (0) -
N, number of participants; n, number of cases harbouring HIV drug-resistant mutation; CI, confident interval; HCMC, Ho Chi Minh City; VCT, voluntary counseling and testing; CSW, commercial sex worker; IDU, injecting drug user; STD, sexually transmitted disease; RT; reverse transcriptase gene; PR, protease gene; ART, antiretroviral therapy; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI, protease inhibitor; TB, tuberculosis; NR, not reported; NA, not applicable; Ref, reference. * Median or mean age (years). † Baseline data of a longitudinal study. ‡ 95% CI was estimated from number of people harbouring drug resistance of HIV and number of specimen with successful genotyping with both RT and PR genes. § Survey used the World Health Organization’s methodology for surveillance for transmitted HIV drug resistance with three thresholds: <5% (low), 5-15% (moderate), >15% (high). **Three provinces were enrolled: Ha Noi, Ninh Binh, and Nam Dinh. †† Five provinces were enrolled: Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa, and Can Tho.
Table 2: The prevalence of HIV drug resistance among recently and chronically HIV-infected people with antiretroviral naive in Vietnam, 2000-2009
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