Trials Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding of participants, personnel and outcomes Complete outcome data* Selective outcome reporting Other bias
Turpeinen et al. [14] + ± + + + +
Boushey et al. [10] + + + + + +
Zeiger et al. [12] + + + ? + +
Martinez et al. [13] + + + + + +
Papi et al. [11] + + + + + +
Martinez et al. [13] + + + + + +
Papi et al. [15] + + + + + +
+=low risk of bias (high methodological quality); ? =insufficient information to permit a judgment regarding the risk of bias (despite contacting authors). A trial was considered to be of high methodological quality if it convincingly used random sequence generation, double-blinding, and reported low and balanced withdrawal rate with complete reporting of outcomes [18].
*Complete outcomes data describes the completeness of outcome data for each main outcome, including attrition and exclusions from the analysis. Whether attrition and exclusions were reported, the numbers in each intervention group, reasons for attrition/exclusions were reported, and any re-inclusion in analyses performed by the review authors.
Selective outcome reporting involves checks for the possibility of selected outcome reporting or changing the primary outcome.
eTable 1: Methodological quality of included trials determined using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool [18].
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