Dietary factors Study design Outcome(s) Results Ref
“Meat–dim sum pattern” and “vegetable–fruit– soy pattern” (FFQ and PCA) Longitudinal cohort study (5 years) in 52,325 subjects aged 45-74 years (China) New onset of persistent cough with phlegm (symptoms of chronic bronchitis) The meat-dim sum pattern was associated with increased incidence of cough with phlegm [101]
“Prudent pattern” and “Western pattern” (FFQ and PCA) Prospective cohort study in middle aged 42,917 men (12 years follow-up) and 72,043 women (6 years follow-up) (US) COPD diagnosis The prudent pattern was negatively associated with the risk of newly diagnosed COPD while the Western pattern was positively associated with the risk of newly diagnosed COPD [102,103]
“Prudent pattern” and “traditional pattern” (FFQ and PCA) Cross-sectional study in 1,551 males and 1,391 females with average age of 66 years (UK) Primary outcome: FEV1; Secondary outcomes: FVC, FEV1/FVC, COPD The prudent pattern was positively associated with FEV1 in male and females, and negatively with COPD in males [104]
“Cosmopolitan pattern”, “traditional pattern”, and “refined food dietary pattern” (FFQ and PCA) Longitudinal study (5 years) in 2,911 subjects aged 29-59 years; cross-sectional study in 12,648 subjects aged 29-59 years (the Netherlands) FEV1, wheeze, asthma, COPD The “refined food pattern” was associated with a greater decline in lung function over 5 years. The “traditional pattern” was cross-sectionally associated with lower FEV1 and an increased prevalence of COPD, the “cosmopolitan pattern” was associated with a small increased prevalence of asthma and wheeze [105]
PCA: Principal Component Analysis
Table 2: Main findings from epidemiological studies of eating patterns in relation to adult lung function and COPD (see text for further details on the diets).
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