Figure 1: Patient cooperativeness. Comparison of the three groups (nasal, oral, and rectal) at the five measured time points (baseline, midazolam administration, 20 minutes after midazolam administration, separation from parent, and mask induction of anesthesia). White = 1 (excellent, fully cooperative), checkered = 2 (good, cooperative with reassurance), and black = 3 (poor, uncooperative). * Rectal > oral and nasal (P<0.05).