Figure 5: PEEP may complement other intraoperative strategies to improve patient outcome. The effects on outcomes are currently unknown. Implementing a, keeping an Fi02 <1.0 and utilizing a lower VT in conjunction with PEEP may improve patient outcome. PEEP; positive end expiratory pressure, RM; recruitment maneuver, PLV; protective lung ventilation, FI02; fraction of inspired oxygen, VT; tidal volume, RF; respiratory failure, ↓; decrease, ↑; increase, ? unknown.