• Acute myocardial infarction (3-5 days)
• Unstable angina
• Uncontrolled arrhythmias causing symptoms or haemodynamic compromise
• Syncope
• Active endocarditis
• Acute myocarditis or pericarditis
• Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis
• Uncontrolled heart failure
• Acute pulmonary embolus or pulmonary infarction
• Thrombosis of lower extremities
• Suspected dissecting aneurysm
• Uncontrolled asthma
• Pulmonary oedema
• Room air desaturation at rest <85%
• Respiratory failure
• Acute noncardiopulmonary disorder that may affect exercise performance or beaggravated by exercise (i.e. infection, renal failure, thyrotoxicosis)
• Mental impairment leading to inability to cooperate
• Left main coronary stenosis or its equivalent
• Moderate stenoticvalvular heart disease
• Severe untreated arterial hypertension at rest (>200 systolic and >120 mm Hg diastolic)
• High-degree atrioventricular block
• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
• Significant pulmonary hypertension
• Advanced or complicated pregnancy
• Electrolyte abnormalities
• Orthopaedic impairment that compromises performance
Table 1: Absolute and relative contraindications of CPET.