Pre-operative interventions Operative interventions Post-operative interventions
1. Evaluating existing health status 1. Pre-medications with appropriate drugs (like anxiolytics, anti-emetics, antacids, pro-kinetics, etc.) 1. Multi-modal Analgesia to achieve a state of minimal or no pain
2. Adequate nutritional support 2. Use of thoracic epidural Analgesia 2. Post-operative nausea and vomiting pharmaco-prophylaxis
3. Smoking cessation 3. Avoiding or selective use of nasogastric tube, urinary catheter or abdominal drains 3. Patient to be rendered tube/catheter/drain free as soon as possible
4. Exercise regime 4. Goal-directed fluid administration (preventing both over and under hydration) 4. Early enteral nutrition
5. Education regarding procedure and protocol 5. Maintaining intra-operative Normothermia 5. Enforced Ambulation
6. Minimal starvation time (2h-liquids and 6h-solids) 6. Surgical techniques (like Minimal tissue handling, Minimize operative time, Minimal access surgery) 6. Discharge when decided criteria met.
7. Pre-operative oral carbohydrate loading 7. Other measures like infiltration of wound site with local anaesthetic at end of surgery 7. Ensure follow-up
8. Avoiding mechanical bowel preparation.    
Table 1: Components of a typical fast track surgery protocol