Authors (year) Setting Groups N Sample Size Justification Blinded Assessment Main Outcome Main Findings Technical Remarks
Blaivas et al. [15] ED Shoulder dislocation ISB vs. procedural sedation (etomidate) for shoulder reduction 42 N N Length of stay in ED ISB: shorter length of stay (100.3 ± 28.2 vs. 177.3 ± 37.9 minutes; p < 0.0001). Similar post reduction pain and patient satisfaction. ISB performed by ED physicians. 20-30 mL of lidocaine (unknown concentration). 0% Horner’s syndrome in ISB group.
Kriwanek et al. [14] ED Children with forearm fractures AXB vs. deep sedation (midazolam/ ketamine) for fracture reduction 41 Y N Procedural pain and distress during fracture reduction (assessed by a pediatric nurse) No differences in procedural pain/ distress.
No differences in orthopedic/ patient satisfaction.
Transarterial technique used for AXB. AXB performed by ED physicians. AXB: 20% failure rate (patients had residual pain sensation during sensory testing or required supplemental analgesia during fracture manipulation).
AXB = axillary brachial plexus block; ED = Emergency Department; ISB = interscalene brachial plexus block; N = no; Y = yes.
Table 1: Summary of randomized controlled trials pertaining to upper extremity trauma.