Summary of the metabolomics analysis for the sepsis condition
Approach (Un targeted/Targeted) Analytical  techniques Animal/Human sampling Biofluid MVA Key metabolites identified Reference
Untargeted NMR Animal (Sprague-Dawleyrats) Serum Orthogonal partial least squares lactate, alanine, acetate, acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate, and formate Lin et al. [23]
Targeted UPLC-Q-TOF-MS Animal (Sprague-Dawleyrats) Plasma Orthogonal partial least squares hypoxanthine, indoxylsufate, glucuronic acid, gluconic acid, proline, uracil, nitrotyrosine, uric acid, and trihydroxycholanoic acid Liu et al. [24]
Untargeted NMR Animal (Sprague-Dawleyrats) Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung tissue and serum Partial least squares -
discriminant analysis
alanine, creatine, phosphoethanolamine, and myoinositol increased in lung tissue; creatine increased and myoinositol decreased in balf; alanine, creatine, phosphoethanolamine, and acetoacetate increased in serum. Izquierdo-Garcia et al. [25]
Human (Newborns) Urine Orthogonal partial least squares- discriminant analysis NMR: acetate
acetone, citrate
creatinine glycine
lactate, lysine
GC/MS: lactate, glucose,, maltose,
ribitol, ribonic acid, pseudo-uridine,
2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 2-ketogluconic acid
 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxypentanoic acid
Fanos et al. [22]
Untargeted NMR Human
Serum Orthogonal partial least squares glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, o-acetylcarnitine, succinate, creatine, and creatine phosphatelactate, 2-hydroxyisovalerate, isobutyrate, creatinine, trimethylamine n-oxide, and ureabranched-chain amino acids Mickiewicz et al.[28]
Table 2: A schematic representation of metabolomics workflow applied to sepsis biofluids.