Biomarkers of oxidative stress
ROS and RNS SOD radical, H2O2, NO, HOCL, peroxides, peroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, metal-oxo complexe, semiquinone radical, heme proteins, singlet oxygen;
Products of lipid peroxidation MDA, 4-HNE, hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes, F2-isoprostanes dicarboxylic acids;
Products of DNA oxidation Modified bases, 8-oxo-2' deoxyguanosine, strand breaks;
Primary products of protein oxidation o-tyrosine, o,o.-dityrosine, 3 chlorotyrosine,3-nitrotyrosine, dihydroxyphenylalanine, protein disulfides, methionine sulfoxide, hydroperoxides of isoleucine, leucine, valine, protein carbonyls adipic semialdehyde, 2-oxohistidine;
Secondary products of protein
AGEs, ALEs, EAGLEs, Pentosidine, MDA-Lys, MDA-LDL, CML, CMA, CEL, Crosslines HNE (Lys, His, Cys) Argpyrimidine, Vesperlysines, Pyrroles, GOLD, MOLD;
Antioxidant defense systems and
total antioxidant status
Levels of enzymes and antioxidants;
Table 2: Biomarkers of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus (adapted from ref. [46]).