Antioxidant Mechanism of Action References
Aminoguanidine Inhibits the accelerated death of retinal capillary cells and development of retinopathy, inhibits lipid
peroxidation and AGEs formation;
Ascorbic acid, acetate, α- tocopherol, trolox cysteine,
NAC, β-carotene and selenium
Reduce PKC in the retina, and lipid peroxides, prevents the drecrease of SOD, GR and catalase; [12, 77-78]
Benfotiamine Inhibits MnSOD, increases the inhibiton of acellular capillaries in the retina blocking the major pathways involved in hyperglycemia induced retinal dysmetabolism; [88]
Caffeic acid Anti-angiogenic activity in retinal endothelial cells and retinal neovascularization, suppression of the ROSinduced and VEGF expression; [81, 97]
Calcium dobsilate Decreases retinal permeability, stabilized BRB and reduced overexpression of VEGF; [11, 79-80]
Curcumin Ocular anti-inflammatory multipotent activities; [44, 91]
Lipoic acid Attenuates the apoptosis of retinal capillary cells and acellular capillaries, decreases the levels of
nitrotyrosine, VEGF and oxidatively modified proteins, activation of NF-κB;
[73, 83]
Nicanartine Inhibits pericyte loss; [8]
Pycnogenol Free radical scavenger, antiinflammatory properties; [92]
Pyridoxamine Inhibits the formation of diabetes-induced retinal acellular strands; [88]
Rosmarinic acid Anti-angiogenic activity to retinal neovascularization, inhibits the proliferation of retinal endothelial cells, and the angiogenesis of tube formation; [84]
Selenium Down-regulate VEGF production in the retina of diabetics; [90]
Trolox Partially prevents the loss of pericytes via reducing membrane lipid peroxidation; [76]
Vitamin C and E
Vitamin C and E Reduce neovascularization, prevent the inhibition of retinal GR, GPx and SOD activities; [76-77, 98]
Vitamin E Restores retinal blood flow, free radical scavenger, normalize diabetic retinal hemodynamics; [46, 48, 50]
Zinc Prevents diabetes-induced GSH loss in the retina; [89]
Table 3: Antioxidants described to have high therapy potential in diabetic retinopathy and their way of action.