No.(%) of subjects      
Variable Total Cases Controls OR (95%CI) P-value
Physical activity
Yes
No

49 (08.9)
502 (91.1)
06 (02.1)
274 (97.9)
43 (15.9)
228 (84.1)
1.00
0.11 (0.04-0.27)
<0.0001
Smoking status
Non smoker
Smoker
05 (91.7)
46 (08.3)
251 (89.6)
29 (10.4)
254 (93.7)
17 (06.3)
1.00
0.57 (0.31-1.08)
0.086
Dietary intake
follow-up
Average
Not followed
119 (21.6)
205 (37.2)
227 (41.2)
69 (24.6)
113 (40.4)
98 (35.0)
50 (18.5)
92 (33.9)
129 (47.6)
1.00
1.12 (0.71-1.77)
1.81 (1.16-2.84)
0.61
0.009
Family history of diabetes mellitus
No
Yes
187 (33.9)
364 (66.1)
75 (26.8)
205 (73.2)
112 (41.3)
159 (58.7)
1.00
0.51 (0.36-0.74)
0.0001
BMI group (kg/m2)
≤25 (normal)
25-30 (overweight)
>30 (obese)
264 (47.9)
159 (28.9)
128 (23.2)
77 (27.5)
98 (35.0)
105 (37.5)
166 (61.3)
54 (19.9)
51 (18.8)
1.00
0.30 (0.20-0.45)
0.39 (0.25-0.60)
<0.0001
<0.0001
Waist circumference(cm)
Male †
<102
>102
Female‡
<88
>88
119 (56.7)
91 (43.3) 113 (33.1)
228 (66.9)
35 (33.7)
69 (66.3) 35 (19.9)
141 (80.1)
84 (79.3)
22 (20.7) 78 (47.3)
87 (52.7)
1.00
0.13 (0.07-0.24) 1.00
0.27 (0.17-0.44)
<0.0001 <0.0001
Hypertension
No
Yes
371 (67.3)
180 (32.7)
149 (53.2)
131 (46.8)
222 (81.9)
49 (18.1)
1.00
0.25 (0.17-0.37)
<0.0001
*Abbreviations: BMI-body mass index; OR-odds ratio; CI-confidence interval
†Number of male cases=104; Number of male controls=106
‡Number of female cases= 176; Number of female controls= 165
Table 2: Lifestyle, genetic, and family history of diabetic cases (n=280) and non diabetic controls (n=271)*.